Chemistry Chapter 10 Study Guide Questions

What is a real gas?
A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the Kinetic-molecular theory.

Thoroughly describe the kinetic-molecular theory.
1. Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size.
2. Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions.
3. Gas particles are in continuous rapid, random motion. Therefore they possess kinetic energy, which is energy of motion.
4. There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles.
5. The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature of the gas.

What is diffusion?
Such spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion.

What is the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas?
Gas pressure varies directly with Kelvin temperature at constant volume

Which gases are most likely to deviate from ideal gas behavior?
Highly polar gases deviate from ideal behavior to a larger degree than nonpolar gases.

If we want to study the relationship between pressure and volume, what must remain constant?
Temperature.

What is standard temperature and pressure?
For purposes of comparison, scientists have agreed on standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0°C.

Explain Boyle’s Law mathematically.
V=k(1/P) or PV=k

What is effusion?
A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening.

What is an ideal gas?
An imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.

What is the SI unit for force?
Newton.

What is a barometer?
A device used to measure atmospheric pressure.

What is partial pressure?
The pressure of each gas in a mixture is called the partial pressure of that gas.

What is absolute zero?
It is -273.15°C and given a value of 0 in Kelvin.

What is an elastic collision?
Is one in which there is no net loss of kinetic energy.

What are fluids?
Because liquids and gases flow they are both referred to as fluids.

Describe Dalton’s Law in words and mathematically.
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.
Pt=P₁+P₂+P₃……

Describe Charles’s Law in words and mathematically.
The volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature.
V=kT or V/T=k

Describe Gay-Lussac’s Law in words and mathematically.
The pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature.
P=kT or P/T=k

Describe Boyle’s Law in words and mathematically.
The volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at a constant temperature.
V=k(1/P) or PV=k

Describe the Combined Gas Law in words and mathematically.
Expresses the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
(P)(V)/T=k