Heinsberg uncertainty principle
you cannot exactly know the position of an electron at any time
What did DeBroglie discover?
electrons travel as waves around the nucleus
What did De Broglie suggest about electrons?
they have a motion confined to the space around the nucleus
What did Schrodinger discover/
the quantum model theory and the probability model
quantum theory
describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
what is an orbital?
a 3-D region around the nucleus where an electron resides, idicates the probable location of an electron
what are quantum numbers?
they specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals, they are the “address” of an electron
what is the principle quantum number?
it indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron, the 1st number in the “address”, n=# of the energy level (1= 1st energy level, etc.)
what is the angular momentum quantum number? (azimuthal)
it indicates the shape of the orbital, tells the sublevel, l=0 for an s sublevel, (p) l=1, (d) l=2, (f) l=3
what is the magnetic quantum number?
indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus, tells the orbital
what is the spin quantum number?
indicates the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital, two possible values (+1/2 or -1/2), the way the electron spins in an orbital
what is the Aufbau principle?
states that an electron occupies the lowest energy level orbital that it can recieve
what is the Pauli exclusion principle?
states that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
what is Hund’s rule?
states that when filling a sublevel, each orbital must have one electron before you double up
what is an electron configuration?
putting the electrons in orbitals, levels, and sublevels
how do you write electron configurations?
fill lower energy levels before higher energy levels with as many electrons as you have
what is an orbital diagram?
a picture of energy levels, sublevels, and orbitals using arrows for electrons
how do you do electron configurations for ions?
add or subtract the number of electrons in the charge from the atomic number of the element
what is an anion?
a negative ion formed by adding electrons
what is a cation?
a positive ion formed by subtracting electrons
what is the highest occupied level?
the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principle quantum number
what are inner-shell electrons?
electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level
what is noble-gas configuration?
an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by 8 electrons
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