CHEM 371

primary carbon
bonded to one other C atom
secondary carbon
bonded to two other C atoms
tertiary carbon
bonded to three other C atoms
quaternary carbon
bonded to four other C atoms
primary hydrogen
bonded on a C bonded to one other C atom
secondary hydrogen
on a C bonded to two other C atoms
tertiary hydrogen
on a C bonded to three other C atoms
homologous series
group of compounds that differ by only a CH2 group
C atoms: 1
methane
C atoms: 2
ethane
C atoms: 3
propane
C atoms: 4
butane
C atoms: 5
pentane
C atoms: 6
hexane
C atoms: 7
heptane
C atoms: 8
octane
C atoms: 9
nonane
C atoms: 10
decane
isopropyl group
[image]
n-butyl group
[image]
isobutyl
[image]
sec-butyl
[image]
tert-butyl
[image]
alkane bonds
sp3, tertrahedral geometry, nonpolar bonds, exhibit only weak van der Waals forces
alkanes related to bp
bp increasaes as the # of carbons increase because of increased surface area
bp of alkane isomers
bp decreases with branching because of decreased surface area
melting point of alkanes
mp increases as symmetry increases
steriochemistry
the study of 3D structure
conformations
different arrangements of molecules from rotating carbon-carbon sigma bonds
Gauche conformations
higher in energy, steric strain
torsional strain
strain caused by eclipsing interactions
steric strain
strain produced when atoms are forced too close to each other
angle strain
strain produced when bond angles deviate from 109.5 degrees
axial hydrogens
located above and below the ring
equatorial hydrogens
located in the plane of the ring
stereoisomers
isomers that differ only in the way the atoms are oriented in space
cis isomer
has two groups on the same side of the ring
trans isomer
has two groups on opposite sides of the ring
oxidation
loss of electrons
reduction
gain of electrons
oxidation results in an…
increase of C-Z bonds; decrease of C-H bonds
reduction results in a(n)…
decrease in C-Z bonds; increase of C-H bonds
lipids
biomolecules that are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water; composed of nonpolar c-H and C-C bonds, and have few polar functional groups

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