Chem 2211 Test 1

Ionic Bond

Chapter 1

 

Bonds held together by electrostatic attraction

Alkane Group
[image] Contains carbon-hydrogen bonds only, NOT a functional group
Alkene Group
[image]   Contains a carbon-carbon double bond
Alkyne Group

[image]

 

Contains carbon-carbon triple bond

Arene Group
[image] Contains six-member carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds
Alkyl Halide Group
[image]   carbon bonded to a halogen
Alcohol Group
[image]carbon bonded to hydroxyl group
Ether Group
[image]   two carbons bonded to single oxygen
Amine Group
[image]   carbon bonded to nitrogen
Thiol Group
[image]carbon bonded to sulfide (-SH)
Sulfide Group
[image]   two carbons bonded to one sulfur
Carbonyl Group
[image]   carbon double bonded to oxygen
Aldehyde Group
[image]   one carbon and one hydrogen bonded to carbonyl group
Ketone Group
[image]   two carbons bonded to a carbonyl group
Carboxylic Acid Group
[image]  hydroxyl group bonded to a carbonyl      group (carboxylic acid derivative)
Ester Group
[image] one carbon and one oxygen bonded to a carbonyl group, a carboxylic acid derivative

1. Amide

2. Acid Chloride

3. Acid Anhydride

4. Ester

5. Carboxylic Acid

 

Name the 5 carboxylic acid derivatives

Amide Group
[image]   one nitrogen bonded to a carbonyl group, a carboxylic acid derivative
Acid Chloride Group
[image]  one chlorine bonded to a carbonyl group, a carboxylic acid derivative
Acid Anhydride Group
[image]   one oxygen bonded to two carbonyl groups, a carboxylic acid derivative
Imine Group
[image]  carbon double bonded to a nitrogen
Nitrile Group
[image]carbon triple bonded to one nitrogen
Thioester Group
[image]  one sulfur bonded to a carbonyl group
Saturated / Aliphatic Compounds

Chapter 12

 

Term for a carbon with all four bonds established and filled

1: meth-

2: eth-

3: prop-

4: but-

5: pent-

6: hex-

7: hept-

8: oct-

9: non-

10: dec-

 

Name all the parent numbers for systematic nomenclature

 

Systematic Nomenclature

 

Term for organic chemistry nomenclature

Bronstead Acid-Base Equilibrium

Chapter 3

 

Idea of acid-base equilibrium where acids donate protons and bases accept protons

Lewis Acid-Base Equilibrium

Chapter 3

 

Idea of acid-base equilibrium where acid accepts electron pair and base donates electron pair

T = (Io/I1) x 100%

 

% transmittance = (original infared light/remaining infared light) x 100%

Chapter 12

 

Formula for calculating percent transmittance

Molecule

Chapter 1

 

Neutral collection of atoms

Covalent Bond

Chapter 1

 

Bond between two atoms formed by sharing a pair of electrons

Electon-Dot / Lewis Structure

Chapter 1

 

Style of molecular structure drawing where valence electrons are represented with dots and covalent bonds are represented by lines

Line-Bond / Kekule Structure

Chapter 1

 

Style of molecular structure drawing where covalent bonds are represented by lines between atoms but valence electrons are not represented

Skeletal Structure

Chapter 1

 

Style of molecular structure drawing where carbons and hydrogens are not shown. The intersections between two lines are recognized as carbons. Heteroatoms are depicted and in order facing the carbon they would be bonded to.

Valence Bond Theory

Chapter 1

 

Theory that covalent bonds are formed when two atoms approach each other closely and a singly occupied orbital on one atom overlaps a singly occupied orbital on the other atom

Condensed Structure

Chapter 1

 

Style of molecular structure drawing where carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds are not illustrated but understood

Sigma Bond (σ)

Chapter 1

 

A bond characterized by head-on overlapping of two atomic orbitals along the line between the nuclei

Pi Bond (π)

Chapter 1

 

A bond made up solely of unhybridized p orbitals, bonds overlap above and below nuclei

1. Bond Strength

2. Bond Length

3. Bond Angle

Chapter 1

 

Name the three unique characteristics of every covalent bond

Hybridization

Chapter 1

 

The combination of an s and p orbital on an atom

sp3 Hybridization
 [image]Type of hybridization where four sp hybridized orbitals are present to form a tetrahedral shape, only sigma (σ) bonds present
sp2 Hybridization
sp Hybridization
Molecular Orbital Theory

Chapter 1

 

Theory of covalent bond formation where a mathematical combination of atomic orbitals (wave functions) on different atoms form a molecular orbital

Molecular Orbital

Chapter 1

 

Idea that orbitals belong to an entire molecular, not just a single atom

Bonding Molecular Orbital

Chapter 1

 

Type of molecular orbital characterized by the additive combination of two atomic orbitals to form a single, egg-shaped orbital. Electrons spend most of their time in the region between the two nuclei, lower in energy than the other type of molecular orbital.

Antibonding Molecular Orbital

Chapter 1

 

Type of molecular orbital characterized by the subtractive combination of two atomic orbitals to form one single orbital shaped like an elongated dumbbell. Electrons cannot occupy region between the two nuclei, higher in energy than the other type of molecuar orbital.

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