Chapter16

By the mid-1840s, the American West
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Image changed
Indian tribes of the Pacific coast of the Far West?
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Serrano, Chumash, pomo, maidu, yurok and chinook appaches, navajos
In the mid-nineteenth century, the Plains Indians were
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Diverse groups of tribes. cultures connected family networks. one with nature. large tribes small bands
Indian tribes included among the Plains Indians?
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Soiux Nation arapaho and cheyene
Statements regarding Hispanic New Mexico
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Scattered Spanish-speaking communities transformed by Anglo Americans created wealth opportunities, ended communal farming and trading societies. Small aristocracy of ranching landowners. general Stephen Kearney attempt at territorial governments with little mexican influence
During the 1840s, Hispanics living in California
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Californios, little power excluded from work lost land taken advantage of
During the nineteenth century, in the Far West the term “coolie”
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Chinese indentured servants
In the 1840s and 1850s, in the Far West, the response by white Americans to the Chinese
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Treated unfairly and considered rivals due to their success
The Chinese from California became the major source of labor for the transcontinental railroad
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Few demands, low wages, work gangs
In the 1870s, in the Far West the largest single Chinese community
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San Francisco
Chinese tongs
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Secret societies of violent criminals involving opium trade and prostitution and tong wars
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
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Band Chinese immigration for 10 years and Bard Chinese from becoming citizens
The Homestead Act of 1862
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Settlers could buy 160 acre plots for small fee if occupied for five years and improved. free farm to anyone who needed it
By 1900, American territories in the contiguous United States that had been granted statehood
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Kansas, Nevada, Colorado, Nebraska North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the working class in the western economy
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Multiracial
In the late nineteenth century, a major western industries?
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mining
Mining in the west
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Mineral rich Helms and plateaus quick fortunes precious metals surface mining then commercial morning
The Comstock Lode p
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Washoe Nevada, most valuable ore discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock silver
Women in nineteenth-century western mining towns
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outnumbered, domestic tasks for wages, lots of prostitution, came with husbands
The western cattle industry, Mexican ranchers
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developed techniques and equipment:
branding, roundups, roping, Keira, Lariats, saddles, leather chaps, Spurs
In the 1860s, cattle drives from Texas to Missouri
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Combined herds north to Sedalia Missouri on Missouri Pacific Railroad. Faced: outlaws, Indians and farmers fraction of animals survived. Proved Long drives helped cattle gain weight, gateway to cattle kingdom
The town which reigned as the railhead of the cattle kingdom for many years
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Abilene, Kansas
In the late nineteenth century, “Range wars” in the West
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Sheepman, cattlemen ranchers and farmers competing. Loss of life and property damage.
In the 1880s, decline of the open range cattle industry
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Overstocked, not enough grass, to severe winters, one hot summer dried-up grass and streams. Never recovered, long drives disappeared, replaced by railroads. fenced in farms prospered
In the late nineteenth century, the popular image of the American West
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Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, basins, plateaus, Rockies, sierra Nevada, cascade Range and diversity.
The “Rocky Mountain School” of painting
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Thomas Moran, Albert Bierstadt. Eastern/Midwest tours, showed ruggedness, inspired tourism and railroads.
In Owen Wister’s novel, The Virginian (1902), the American cowboy was
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Free from social constraints, one with nature, like violence, semi-educated, courageous, compassionate powerful symbol of laundry admired hero and natural man in boys magazines and pop culture
Wild West shows
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wild Bill Hickok rodeo;cattle drives past towns. Barnum started wild West show 1840 W/grand buffalo hunt in New York.
First real wild West show; Omaha Nebraska 1883 Buffalo Bill, annie oakely, reenactments
All of the following writers and artists, significant contributions to the romanticizing of the American West
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Mark Twain, Fredric Remington, Theodore Rosavelt
In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” Frederick Jackson Turner Page: 455
end of frontier and most important democratizing forces in American life. wrong
Before 1860, the traditional policy of the federal government was to regard Indians
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tribes; independent nations and wards of the president.
treaties ratified by Senate
In the 1850s, the United States policy of “concentration” for Indians
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Each tribe separate territory and treaties, made with unauthorized treaty chiefs
The decimation of American buffalo herds in the late nineteenth century
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Used to supply migrants, hides in east, railroad companies killed to clear rail traffic, sell, died off due to lack of plains
The Sand Creek Massacre of 1864
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Eastern Colorado, Arapaho and Cheyenne attacked stagecoach/settlement to regain land. White territorial militia governor told friendly Indians congregate at army posts for protection at Fort Lyonne on Sandcreek November 1864 col. JM Chivington drunk voluntary unemployed miners to kill all except Black Kettle
The 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn
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Northern plains, Sioux left reservation for Montana under Crazy horse and sitting bull. Three armies set to return them; seventh Calvary under George A Custer. indians surrounded his army and killed them all, but were eventually returned to camp
The Indian leader who said, “I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever,”
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Chief Joseph
In 1886, the end of formal warfare between the United States and American Indians
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Geronimo surrendered
In 1890, the “Ghost Dance”
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prophet wovoka encouraged spiritual awaking, Nevada coming of the Messiah, visions of retreating white and restored buffalo herds. made whites afraid
In 1890, at Wounded Knee, South Dakota,
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December 29, 1890, seventh Calvary surrounded sioux 40 white/ 300 Indian dead due to machine guns
The Dawes Act of 1887
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Eliminated tribal ownership of land. head of family 160 acres, single adult or orphan 80 acres, dependent child 40 acres adults given citizenship but not full rights to land for 25 years
In the late nineteenth century, the western agricultural economy
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Boom then bust in West Midwest and South. Surplus caused value decline
In the late nineteenth century, fences for Plains farms
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Barbwire
In the late nineteenth century, in regards to western agriculture
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Prices declining and unpredictable world market
Significant sources of resentment for the late nineteenth-century farmers?
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Freight rates high interest charges in adequate Curency
During the late nineteenth century, Plains farm life
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… lonely boring cut off no education for medical attention
In his writings during the late 1800s, the popular author Hamlin Garland
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Discussed the reality of Western farmers
William Cody’s
Buffalo Bill, fought in Civil War pony express supply buffalo meat, scout for US Calvary during Indian wars, guide for hunting parties character and novel, celebrity.

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