Chapter One The Science of Psychology

Scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Objective Introspection
The process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities

Early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind

Early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which focus of the study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play

Gesalt Psychiology
Early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures

The theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud

The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only

Psychodynamic Perspective
Modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations

Cognitive Perspective
Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning

Cognitive Neuroscience
Study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking

Sociocultural Perspective
Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture

Biopshychological Perspective
Perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system

Evolutionary Perspective
Perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share

A professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology

A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

Psychiatric and Social Worker
A social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have and impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse

Observer Effect
Tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed

Participant Observation
A naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed

Observer Bias
Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see

Case Study
Study of one individual in great detail

Representative Sample
Randomly selected sample of subjects from a a larger population of subjects

The entire group of people or animals in which the research is interested

A measure of the relationship between two variables

Correlation Coefficient
A number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation

A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships

Operational Definition
Definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured

Independent Variable
Variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter

Dependent Variable
Variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment

Experimental Group
Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable

Control Group
Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment

Random Assignment
Process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control group randomly, so that each subject has and equal chance of being in either group

Placebo Effect
A phenomenon on which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior

Experimenter Effect
Tendency of the experimenter;s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study

Single-Blind Study
Study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group

Double-Blind Study
Study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group

Critical Thinking
Making reasoned judgements about claims

A ________ has no medical training but has a doctorate degree.

If deception is necessary, participants must then be _________ after the study.

If it is shown that students’ grades go down the more hours they spend watching TV, then grades and hours watching TV have a __________ correlation.

If there is _________ in a medical experiment, the control group will show changes in the dependent variable even if they are given a harmless substitute rather than a real drug.
A placebo effect

The variable that is manipulated in an experiment is the
Independent variable

Studying children’s interactions by watching them play on the school playground is an example of
Naturalistic observation

If researchers find a relationship between students’ grades and the number of hours they spend watching TV,
It still does not prove causation

Today, Gestalt psychology ideas are part of which branch of psychology?
Cognitive psychology

The psychodynamic perspective differs from the psychoanalytic one in that
The psychodynamic perspective places less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations

The cognitive perspective focuses on
Memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning

The sociocultural perspective studies
The effect people have on one another, both individually and in a large group

________ are defined in the text as standards on which a judgment or decision may be based.

Which of the following is TRUE about crop circles?
They have been shown to be a hoax.

________ is the goal in psychology that involves observing human or animal behavior and noting everything about the behavior.

Talking, facial expressions, and movements are elements of

A doctor informs the parents of a 14-year-old that without hospitalization her anorexia will worsen and cause grave medical conditions. The doctor is making a(n)

The text defines a _________ as someone who seeks wisdom and knowledge through thinking and discussion.

Gestalt psychologists devoted most of their research to studying
Sensation and perception.

Mary Cover Jones achieved counterconditioning with “Little Peter” by using

By making a loud noise when “Little Albert” was presented with a rat, John Watson taught the baby to fear rats. This proved that
Phobias could be learned through conditioning.