Chapter One The Science of Psychology

Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Objective Introspection
The process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities
Structuralism
Early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
Functionalism
Early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which focus of the study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
Gesalt Psychiology
Early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures
Psychoanalysis
The theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
Behaviorism
The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
Psychodynamic Perspective
Modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations
Cognitive Perspective
Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
Cognitive Neuroscience
Study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
Sociocultural Perspective
Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
Biopshychological Perspective
Perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
Evolutionary Perspective
Perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
Psychologists
A professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology
Psychiatrist
A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Psychiatric and Social Worker
A social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have and impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse
Observer Effect
Tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
Participant Observation
A naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed
Observer Bias
Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
Case Study
Study of one individual in great detail
Representative Sample
Randomly selected sample of subjects from a a larger population of subjects
Population
The entire group of people or animals in which the research is interested
Correlation
A measure of the relationship between two variables
Correlation Coefficient
A number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation
Experiment
A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships
Operational Definition
Definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured
Independent Variable
Variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter
Dependent Variable
Variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
Experimental Group
Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
Control Group
Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment
Random Assignment
Process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control group randomly, so that each subject has and equal chance of being in either group
Placebo Effect
A phenomenon on which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
Experimenter Effect
Tendency of the experimenter;s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
Single-Blind Study
Study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group
Double-Blind Study
Study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group
Critical Thinking
Making reasoned judgements about claims
A ________ has no medical training but has a doctorate degree.
Psychologist
If deception is necessary, participants must then be _________ after the study.
Debriefed
If it is shown that students’ grades go down the more hours they spend watching TV, then grades and hours watching TV have a __________ correlation.
Negative
If there is _________ in a medical experiment, the control group will show changes in the dependent variable even if they are given a harmless substitute rather than a real drug.
A placebo effect
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment is the
Independent variable
Studying children’s interactions by watching them play on the school playground is an example of
Naturalistic observation
If researchers find a relationship between students’ grades and the number of hours they spend watching TV,
It still does not prove causation
Today, Gestalt psychology ideas are part of which branch of psychology?
Cognitive psychology
The psychodynamic perspective differs from the psychoanalytic one in that
The psychodynamic perspective places less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations
The cognitive perspective focuses on
Memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
The sociocultural perspective studies
The effect people have on one another, both individually and in a large group
________ are defined in the text as standards on which a judgment or decision may be based.
Criteria
Which of the following is TRUE about crop circles?
They have been shown to be a hoax.
________ is the goal in psychology that involves observing human or animal behavior and noting everything about the behavior.
Description
Talking, facial expressions, and movements are elements of
Behavior.
A doctor informs the parents of a 14-year-old that without hospitalization her anorexia will worsen and cause grave medical conditions. The doctor is making a(n)
Prediction.
The text defines a _________ as someone who seeks wisdom and knowledge through thinking and discussion.
Philosopher
Gestalt psychologists devoted most of their research to studying
Sensation and perception.
Mary Cover Jones achieved counterconditioning with “Little Peter” by using
Food
By making a loud noise when “Little Albert” was presented with a rat, John Watson taught the baby to fear rats. This proved that
Phobias could be learned through conditioning.
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