chapter 8 vocab

covalent bond
a bond formed by sharing of electrons between atoms
molecule
neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
diatomic molecule
molecule with 2 atoms
molecular compound
compound composed of molecules
molecular formula
chemical formula of molecular compound
single covalent bond
bond formed when 2 atoms share a pair of electrons
structural formula
represents covalent bonds by dashes and show arrangement of covalently bonded atoms
unshared pair
pair of valence electrons that isn’t shared between atoms
double covalent bond
bond that involves 2 shared pairs of electrons
triple covalent bond
bond formed by sharing 3 pairs of electrons
coordinate covalent bond
covalent bond which 1 atom contributes both bonding electrons
polyatomic ion
tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and has positive or negative charge
bond dissociation energy
energy required to break bond between 2 covalently bonded atoms
resonance structure
structure that occurs when it is possible to draw 2 or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
molecular orbitals
orbitals that apply to the entire molecule
bonding orbital
a molecular orbital that can be occupied by 2 electrons of a covalent bond
sigma bond
when 2 atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis of the bonded atoms
pi bond
bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage shaped regions above and below the axis of the bonded atoms
tetrahedral angle
109.5* – results when a central atom forms 4 bonds directed toward the center of a regular tetrahedron
VSEPR theory
valence shell electron pair repulsion
hybridization
when several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybid orbitals
nonpolar covalent bond
when atoms in the bond pull equally and the bonding electrons are shared equally
polar bond
covalent bond between atoms; electrons shared unequally
polar molecule
one end of the molecule is slightly negative while the other is slightly positive
dipole
molecule with 2 poles
van der Waals forces
the 2 weakest attractions between molecules
dipole interactions
occur when polar molecules are attracted to one another
dispersion forces
the weakest of all molecular interactions caused by the motion of electons
hydrogen bonds
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom
network solids
solids in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

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