Chapter 8 US Government

The constitutional convention decided that the president must recieve
Presidential Succession
the order in which officials fill the office of president in case of a vacancy
a citizen who has a legal right to vote
Electoral Vote
The official vote for president and vice president by electors in each state
Electoral College
a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
unauthorized (especially deliberate) disclosure of confidential information
Central Clearance
Office of Management and Budget’s review of all legislative proposals that executive agencies prepare
EOP (Exec. Office of the Pres.)
they are committees set up to help the president in making decisions
National Security Advisor
director of the National Security Council staff
Press Secretary
a senior advisor who provides advice on how to deal with the news media and, using news management techniques, helps his or her employer to maintain a positive public image and avoid negative media coverage.
OMB (Office of Management & Budget)
OMB: prepares the national budget that the president proposes to congress.
National Security Council
Heads the staff that handles relations with the press, sets up press conferences and issues public statements
1. What are the qualifications to become president of the USA? What are the non-constitutional “requirements” to become president? Which are more difficult to meet?
Article 2 section 1 states that the president must be a natural born american citizen, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the united states for at least 14 years before taking office. the same requirements apply to the vice president.

experience in the government is an important qualification. this political career allows them the opportunity to form political alliances necessary to obtain a party’s nomination as well as name recognition to win votes.

The importance to money is another one because they need to raise money for their campaigns and also be will to spend their own money to hire staff and for tv appearances etc. they have a limitation on how much they can use and for what purposes they should be using them for.

political views must hold moderate views on most issues because liberal and conservatives don’t get chosen.

personal qualities. most presidents come from middle class families some were rich and some were poor. most come from European background.

the personal growth of the person. taking responsibility

2. What are the constitutional provisions for filling the job of the president if he is unable to perform his duties as president of the USA?
the 25th amendment spells out what happens if the president or vice president seat is empty
president is filled with vice president and vice president is filled with whoever the president chooses.
next in line for presidency is the speaker of the house (VP) then are cabinet officers
during times when the president is unable to fulfill his duties, he must inform congress that the vice president is taking over, only then can the person do anything and second if the president cant inform the people in the cabinet or someone in an authorized body must inform congress
3. What are the constitutional duties for the Vice President? What extra duties have been laid on modern vice presidents?
constitutionally: the vice president presides in the senate and votes if there is a tie. second, the vice president acts as an aid to the president when he is disabled or acts as president when needed.

now they have to make speeches follow the presidents policies. also diplomatic activities such as representing president overseas defend president’s ideas also members of national security council

4. What evidence do we have that the founding fathers didn’t foresee the effects of political parties?
In the election of 1800 for example it was between jefferson and burr, the people wanted jefferson but because there was a tie, they had to go to the house of representatives where majority was federalists who favored burr.

the problems were fixed with the 12th amendment
it required that electors cast separate ballots for vice president and president. also if no candidate gets majority, then they house of rep selects 3 candidates with largest number of electoral votes
if no candidate for vice president has majority then the senate choses top 2 candidates.

5. How has the process of electing the president changed to become more democratic?
this is a democratic processes because it gives the people a voice in who they want for president. the nomination for president .
6. Who selects the president if no candidate gets a majority of electoral votes?
also if no candidate gets majority, then they house of rep selects 3 candidates with largest number of electoral votes
7. How are cabinet secretaries chosen? What are their responsibilities & duties? What is the cabinet’s role?
one important thing would be based on their knowledge and expertise in the field they will be working in.

important that they have high-level administrative skills and experiences. They are responsible for a huge number of people and if anything were to go wrong they would be blamed along with the president.

as women and minority groups have gained political power etc, presidents have been considering them as part of the cabinet.

8. Why are cabinet secretaries often not insiders at the White House?
There is an official called the Cabinet Secretary within the Executive Office of the President charged with maintaining relations between members of the Cabinet & White House. The position is not a civil service position.
9. Why has the EOP become a necessity to the functioning of the Executive Branch?
they are there to assist the president they consist of agencies and individuals. Modern presidents rely on the EOP to provide specialized advice and information needed for decision making. also use them to make presidential decisions and gain more control over the executive branch.
10. How are the members of the EOP similar to and different from the Cabinet?
they are similar because they are there to give advice and gather information for the president but they are different because the EOP is used by the president but the cabinet isn’t as well used as they say they want to.
11. What are the duties of the following: OMB, NSC, NHSC and CEA?
OMB: prepares the national budget that the president proposes to congress. The budget indicates what programs the federal government pays for and how much it will spend on them. This budget influences the president’s decision and policy. Each year all executive agencies submit their budget to the OMB for review before going to president’s approval. The officials then recommend changes to president. To challenge the OMB recommendation and agency must appeal directly to president or a top adviser. This system gives OMB influence over the executive agencies.

NSC: Advise the president and help coordinate american military and foreign policy. The council includes the Vice President, Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense.

NHSC: Coordinates all federal agencies working to counter terrorism in US. It is also responsible in developing a national strategy to protect the US from future terrorist attacks. It advises the president on homeland security issues and is headed by the secretary of homeland security

CEA: helps president formulate the nation’s economic policy. assesses the nation’s economic health, predicts future economic conditions and aids other executive agencies involved in economic planning.

12. How is the White House Office similar to and different from the EOP?
WHO: no need for senate confirmations. they dont need much experience. newcomers to washington. performs whatever duties the president assigns them some tasks are to gather information on something or give key advice political strategists etc.

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