chapter 8 study guide, chemistry

chemical bond
the force that holds two atoms together, formed by the attraction of a positive ion and a negative ion or by sharing electrons

covalent bond
chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons

ionic bond
electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound, high melting/boiling points

polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of an electron pair in covalent bonds

nonpolar covalent bond
equal sharing of electron pairs

electronegativity
difference between ions

nonpolar
0-0.4

polar
0.5-1.7

ionic
>1.7

molecule
two or more atoms covalently bond and is lower in potential energy than its constituent atoms, 2 nonmetals

ionic compund
1 nonmental, 1 metal

octet rule
atoms gain,lose or share electrons in order to acquire the stable electron configuration of a noble gas

central atom
least electronegative atom because it needs the mos pairs

resonance structure
you can draw more than one valid lewis structure

molecular compound
low melting/boiling points, soft, weak forces; dipole-dipole, hydrogen bond, london disspersion

ionic compound
high melting/boiling points, hard, brittle, contain ionic bonds

VSEPR Model
based on the arrangement that minimizes the electron repulsion of shared/unshared electrons around the central atom. predicts the shape and electron pairs around the central atom

dipole-dipole force
delta- is attracted to delta+ , strongest of the weak

hydrogen bonding
hydrogen can only bond to F, O, or N
2nd strongest of the weak

London Disspersion Force
weakest bond, momentary between electrons