Chapter 8 – Chemical Bonding Flashcard

Chemical Bonds
the attractive forces between atoms in molecules result in their formation
Covalent Bond
formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons
Ionic Bond
results from the electrostatic attraction of a cation for an anion
Metallic Bond
consists of the nuclei of metal atoms surrounded by a “sea” of shared electrons
Octet
a set of eight electrons in the outermost (valence) shell of an atom
Octet Rule
states that atoms of main group elements make bonds by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons to achieve an outer shell containing eight electrons or four electron pairs
Duet
the maximum of two electrons that the outermost shell of a hydrogen atom can contain
Lewis Structure
a two-dimensional representation of a molecule that provides a view of the connections between its atoms’ valence electrons are depicted as dots around the atomic symbol
Lewis Symbol
the chemical symbol for an atom surrounded by one or more dots representing the valence electrons
Single Bond
results when two atoms share one pair of electrons
Lone Pair
a pair of electrons that is not shared
Bonding Pair
a pair of electrons shared between two atoms
Double Bond
results when two atoms share two pairs of electrons
Triple Bond
results when two atoms share three pairs of electrons
Bond Length
the distance between the nuclear centers of two atoms joined together in a bond
Polar Molecule
contains bonds that have an uneven distribution of charge because electrons in the bonds re not shared equally by the two atoms
Nonpolar Molecule
contains bonds that have an even distribution of charge; electrons in the bonds are shared equally by the two atoms; pure covalent bonds give rise to nonpolar diatomic molecules
Polar Covalent Bond
results from unequal sharing of bonding pairs of electrons between atoms
Electronegativity
a relative of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself
Bond Polarity
a measure of the extent to which bonding electrons are shared between two atoms in a covalent bond; the less equally they are shared, the more uneven the distribution, the more polar the bond
Allotropes
different forms of the same element, such as oxygen and ozone
Resonance
occurs when two or more equivalent Lew structures can be drawn for one compound
Resonance Structure
one of two or more Lewis structures with the same arrangement of atoms but different arrangements of electrons for a molecule
Formal Charge
equals the number of valence electrons on the free atom in the Lewis structure minus the sum of the number of electrons in its lone pairs plus half the number of electrons in its bonding pairs
Bonding Capacity
reflects the number of covalent bonds an element forms when it has a formal charge of zero
Electron-Deficient Compounds
substances who central atoms in Lewis structures have fewer than four electron pairs (less than an octet of electrons)
Free Radicals
molecules having an odd umber of valence electrons and hence unpaired electrons in their Lewis structures
Bond Order
the number of bonds between atoms
Bond Energy
the energy needs to break one mole of a covalent bond in the gas phase

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