Chapter 7: Cytology (Study of Cells)

cell wall chloroplast
What do plant cells have that animal cells don’t

centrioles cell membrane
What do animal cells have that plant cells don’t?

Which type of cell has numerous vacuoles that are small in size?

cell membrane
double layer of protein and lipid around all cells that separates interior from outside environment and is semi-permeable

cell wall
rigid structure outside cell membrane that provides support

double membrane bound organelle contains genetic material (DNA) and “controls” cell

bodies within the nucleus made of DNA and proteins called the histones

small dense organelle within nucleus that contains DNA, RNA and protein

nuclear membrane
semi-permeable membrane that surrounds nucleus and consists of protein-lipid molecules

semi-liquid substance that contains organelles

small organelles composed of RNA and proteins; synthesizes extracellular proteins (RER) and intracellular proteins (cytoplasm)

double membrane bound organelle produces ATP and is site of cellular respiration

endoplasmic reticulum
extensive system of membrane that transports material through channels and may connect to cell membrane

rough ER
A network of interconnected membranous covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins

smooth ER
Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells)

golgi apparatus
system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell, synthesizes cell secretions and source of lysosomes

membrane bound sac that transports raw materials, wastes and is used for storage of water/food

double membrane sac containing hydrolytic enzymes, used for digestion

A group of membrane-bound organelles commonly found in photosynthetic organisms and mainly responsible for the synthesis and storage of food

organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

green pigment required for photosynthesis that traps the radiant energy of sunlight

network of protein scaffolding that provides shape, organization and movement

thin protein tubules that hold organelles in place and enable cells to change shape

intermediate filaments
anchors organelles
fibers which give cells strength; insoluble and the most durable of the cytoskeletal elements

thick, hollow protein rods that provide shape/support and serve as “tracks” for organelles to move on

help with cell division; separate chromosomes during cell division (mitosis)

short, numerous structures arranged in rows and involved in locomotion and movement

long, single threadlike organelle used for locomotion

“cell drinking”

“cell eating”

pinocytic vesicle
A vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules

contractile vacuole
The cell structure that collects extra water from the cytoplasm and then expels it from the cell

archaebacteria and eubacteria
domains of prokaryotic

Small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria

Plasma membrane folds into the cytoskeleton; significant in copying DNA prior to division

area of cell containing main chromosomes

Robert Hooke
who was the first to observe cells

when did Robert Hooke discover cells

Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Who is credited with first observing microorganisms?

Scheiden Schwann Virchow
Three contributors to the cell theory?

Scheiden Schwann
Two scientist who helped formulate that all living things are composed of cells?

Virchow 1858
Scientist who said all cells are produced from pre-existing cells? What year?

Schledien 1838
_________ said all plants are composed of cells in ____

Schwann 1839
__________ said all animals are composed of cells

which type of cell has histone proteins?

cell membrane, cytoplasm, chromosomes, ribosomes
common features of prokaryote and eukaryote?

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