Chapter 7: Cytology (Study of Cells)

cell wall chloroplast
What do plant cells have that animal cells don’t

centrioles cell membrane
What do animal cells have that plant cells don’t?

animal
Which type of cell has numerous vacuoles that are small in size?

cell membrane
double layer of protein and lipid around all cells that separates interior from outside environment and is semi-permeable

cell wall
rigid structure outside cell membrane that provides support

nucleus
double membrane bound organelle contains genetic material (DNA) and “controls” cell

chromosome
bodies within the nucleus made of DNA and proteins called the histones

nucleolus
small dense organelle within nucleus that contains DNA, RNA and protein

nuclear membrane
semi-permeable membrane that surrounds nucleus and consists of protein-lipid molecules

cytoplasm
semi-liquid substance that contains organelles

ribosomes
small organelles composed of RNA and proteins; synthesizes extracellular proteins (RER) and intracellular proteins (cytoplasm)

mitochondrion
double membrane bound organelle produces ATP and is site of cellular respiration

endoplasmic reticulum
extensive system of membrane that transports material through channels and may connect to cell membrane

rough ER
A network of interconnected membranous covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins

smooth ER
Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells)

golgi apparatus
system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell, synthesizes cell secretions and source of lysosomes

vacuoles
membrane bound sac that transports raw materials, wastes and is used for storage of water/food

lysosomes
double membrane sac containing hydrolytic enzymes, used for digestion

plastids
A group of membrane-bound organelles commonly found in photosynthetic organisms and mainly responsible for the synthesis and storage of food

chloroplast
organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

chlorophylls
green pigment required for photosynthesis that traps the radiant energy of sunlight

cytoskeleton
network of protein scaffolding that provides shape, organization and movement

microfilaments
thin protein tubules that hold organelles in place and enable cells to change shape

intermediate filaments
anchors organelles
fibers which give cells strength; insoluble and the most durable of the cytoskeletal elements

microtubules
thick, hollow protein rods that provide shape/support and serve as “tracks” for organelles to move on

centrioles
help with cell division; separate chromosomes during cell division (mitosis)

cilium
short, numerous structures arranged in rows and involved in locomotion and movement

flagellum
long, single threadlike organelle used for locomotion

pinocytosis
“cell drinking”

phagocytosis
“cell eating”

pinocytic vesicle
A vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules

contractile vacuole
The cell structure that collects extra water from the cytoplasm and then expels it from the cell

archaebacteria and eubacteria
domains of prokaryotic

plasmid
Small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria

mesosome
Plasma membrane folds into the cytoskeleton; significant in copying DNA prior to division

nucleoid
area of cell containing main chromosomes

Robert Hooke
who was the first to observe cells

1665
when did Robert Hooke discover cells

Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Who is credited with first observing microorganisms?

Scheiden Schwann Virchow
Three contributors to the cell theory?

Scheiden Schwann
Two scientist who helped formulate that all living things are composed of cells?

Virchow 1858
Scientist who said all cells are produced from pre-existing cells? What year?

Schledien 1838
_________ said all plants are composed of cells in ____

Schwann 1839
__________ said all animals are composed of cells

eukaryotic
which type of cell has histone proteins?

cell membrane, cytoplasm, chromosomes, ribosomes
common features of prokaryote and eukaryote?