Chapter 6 Psych Study Plan

Psychologists consider memory to be
an active system.

The most efficient way of transferring short-term memory into long-term memory is by using
elaborative rehearsal.

According to Craik and Lockhart, information that is _______ will be remembered more effectively and for a longer period of time.
deeply processed

What is the best way for a person to overcome the tip of the tongue phenomenon?
Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve.

The fact that everyone remembers that George Washington was the first president points to the primacy effect as a result of
long-term memory storage.

Why do flashbulb memories seem so vivid and exact?
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of long-term memories.

Which of the following best describes psychologist John Kihlstrom’s comments when talking about Bartlett’s book on memory?
Memory is more like making up a story than it is like reading a book.

On the Internet, each website has its own specific information but is also linked to many other related sites. In addition, a person can have open more than one site at the same time. This pattern of organization may be very similar to how
the mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory.

In the information-processing model, the first stage of memory is ______ memory.
sensory

_________ is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
Selective attention

Elizabeth Loftus’ research determined that
what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event.

In a study discussed in the textbook that researched the effects of different types of information on memory, subjects viewed a slide presentation of a traffic accident. The actual slide presentation contained a stop sign, but in a written summary of the presentation the sign was referred to as a yield sign. What were the results of this study?
Subjects who were given misleading information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no such information.

A research study found that people who look at real visual images and then are asked to simply imagine looking at visual images
are often unable to later distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.

A(n) ________ is a memory expert or someone with exceptional memory ability.
mnemonist

Ebbinghaus’s ________ shows that forgetting happens quickly, within the first hour after learning the lists, and then tapers off gradually.
curve of forgetting

The _______ is the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
hippocampus

In one study with depressed patients who were being treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), patients were tested for their memory of certain television programs both before and after the treatment. What was the result?
Patients forgot more recent programs but remembered older ones.

To help students learn new psychology terms, Professor Williams encourages the students to think deeply about the meaning of the words by asking them to provide examples of each term, and to use each one in a sentence. Professor Williams is using which model of memory?
levels-of-processing

Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once. Donyelle’s experience illustrates
the importance of retrieval cues in memory.

The ________ effect suggests that the first and last person interviewed for a job will be better remembered by the interviewer than all the people in the middle.
serial position

An eyewitness was asked to testify in court about her memory of a crime that took place on her street. Prior to her testimony, an attorney provided her with a written statement from another neighbor who also viewed the crime. As a result of reading her neighbor’s statement which was different from her own, the accuracy of her memory was altered, which eventually affected her testimony. This is an example of
the misinformation effect.

The phrase “use it or lose it” refers to which theory of forgetting?
disuse or decay

If you move from the United States to England and have trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are experiencing
proactive interference.

Mrs. Tuttle was 97 years old and suffered from forgetfulness and mental confusion. She was probably experiencing
senile dementia.

To answer the questions in this test, which type of memory recall will you most frequently use?
recognition.

Memories are more easily accessed when they are stored with more
retrieval cues.

Explicit memory begins to form after about age 2,
when the hippocampus is more fully developed.

Eidetic imagery
does not guarantee comprehension.

Loftus and other researchers have demonstrated that memory
is a process that constantly changes.

Early memories before the age of 2 years tend to be implicit, which may explain
infantile amnesia.

In interpreting Bartlett’s book, Kihlstrom says that memory is
a problem-solving activity.

The best way to remember the name of a person you meet at a party is to
associate the name with something about the person’s appearance.

Juana was certain that the man she saw in the police photograph was the man who stole her purse. Later another man confessed to the crime. This is an example of
a false positive.

Little Georgie is learning the alphabet. When he recites the alphabet he says “A, B, C, D, W, X, Y, Z.” This is an example of
serial position effect.

_________ allows a musician to tune a musical instrument.
Echoic memory

Brenda called Mike while he was in the middle of the meeting to ask him to pick up some milk on his way home from work. When Mike got home he didn’t have the milk, and Brenda was angry. Mike may have experienced
encoding failure.

Helena lives on a very busy street in New York City. Although she makes no effort to remember how many times cars have passed down her street, when asked, she usually responds “often,” or “a lot.” Her ability to unconsciously notice how many cars pass down her street is a result of
automatic encoding.

Memories of childhood events, special birthdays or anniversaries, and things that happened to an individual on any given day are called
episodic memories.

In real life, information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information. Research suggests that after ________, old information is replaced by new information.
a quarter of a second

An active system that processes the information present in short-term memory. The system of working memory processes the information in
short-term memory.

The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems is called
encoding.

Research on _______ has implications for understanding learning and attention disorders, autism, and intelligence.
working memory

Procedural memories
are not easily retrieved into conscious awareness.

The Tower of Hanoi study found that people with anterograde amnesia
were able to form new declarative memories. new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed

Marcos and his friends enjoy watching football together on Sundays. After some of the games are over, Marcos tells his friends that he knew all along who would win the game. Marcos’ belief that he could predict the outcome of some of the games without having been told the winners in advance is an example of
hindsight bias.

______ “fools” the STM into holding more information than is usual.
Chunking

“Deep processing” is associated with
the levels-of-processing model.

The information-processing model of memory suggests that
the process of memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages.

In a room filled with people, where several conversations are going on, you are able to hear your name being spoken. This is
the “cocktail-party effect.”

The storage time of a memory depends upon
the system of memory being used.

________ memory refers to the awareness of the meanings of words, concepts, and terms as well as names of objects, math skills, and so on.
Semantic

________ syndrome refers to the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis.
False memory

The removal of H. M.’s hippocampi made ______ impossible. Where memory is forming
consolidation

The idea that memory formation is a simultaneous process is reflected in the
parallel distributed processing model.

The information in short-term memory is
conscious.

Long-term memory
has unlimited capacity.

All models of memory involve the same _______ processes.
three

The ______ can be used to explain how rapidly the points on the semantic network can be accessed.
parallel distributed processing model

Marcia dated Davio for several years. They recently broke up and Marcia went out on a date with a man named Oliver. While on the date, Marcia mistakenly called him Davio. This is an example of
proactive interference.

In their original study, which explored how information is stored in long-term memory, Collins and Quillian (1969) asked participants to respond “true” or “false” as quickly as possible to sentences such as “a canary is a bird” and “a canary is an animal.” The results of this study suggest that
information exists in a kind of network, with nodes of related information linked to each other in a kind of hierarchy.

The information-processing model can be linked to
cognitive psychology.

Amnesia can be brought about by
alcoholism.

Mr. S. was a performing ______, showcasing his extraordinary memory ability.
mnemonist

Memory for facts is called ________ memory because facts are things that are known and can be stated outright.
declarative

After his accident, Bryan had trouble remembering facts and events that were related to his personal life history. He was suffering from a loss of ________ memory.
episodic

When a memory is being formed, several changes take place in the brain in a process called
consolidation.

On the way to the grocery store, James repeats his list to himself—”Bread, milk, butter. Bread, milk butter….” James is using
maintenance rehearsal.

The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) model focuses on
the connections and timing of memory processes.

three processes of memory
encoding, storage, and retrevial

the first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems – eyes, ears, and so on
sensory memory

nondeclarative (implicit) memory
memories for things that people know how to do, life tying shoes and riding a bicycle

encoding specificity
the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if retrieval conditions are similar to the conditions under which the information was encoded

recal
memories retrieved with little or not external cues, such as filling in the blanks of tests

primary effeect
the first few words, when the listener has nothing in STM to interfere with their rehearsal, will receive far more rehearsal time than the words in the middle, which are constantly being replaced by the next word on the list

constructive processing
referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information

memory trace
some physical change in the brain, perhaps in a neuron or in the activity between neurons

decay
if the traces arent used we will forget them, fading into nothing

retroactive interference
newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information

retrograde amnesia
Loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier’s forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby, injuring him.

anterograde amnesia
Loss of memory for events that have occurred after brain damage

alzheimer’s disease
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical reasoning

autobiographical memory
the memory for events and facts related to one’s personal life story