Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell


organelles
Structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell.

cytosol
The soluble portion of the cytoplasm, which includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the organelles covered with membranes.

eukaryotic cells
Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.


cytoplasm
The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cells chemical composition.

nuclear envelope
double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus

nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope; it helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.

chromosomes
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

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/>chromatin
The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins

nucleolus
Small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins.

endomembrane system
A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.

vesicle
Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.

smooth ER
Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells).

rough ER
A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cells cytoplasm; covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.

glycoprotein
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.

transport vesicles
Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another.

Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

phagocytosis
Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.

lysosome
A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.

contractile vacuoles
A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.

mitochondria
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.

chloroplasts
Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.

peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.

cristae
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

thylakoids
Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis.

stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.

cytoplasmic streaming
the motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cells contents.

cell wall
Strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.
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