Chapter 6

activation energy
The energy needed to break the bonds of reacting molecules
actual yield
The actual amount of product produced by a a reaction
Avogadro’s number
The number of items in a mole; equal to 6.02 x 1023
balanced equation
The final form of a chemical equation that shows the same number of atoms of each element in the reactants and products
chemical equation
A shorthand way to represent a chemical reaction using chemical formulas to indicate the reactants and products and coefficients to show reacting ratios
chemical reaction
The process by which a chemical change takes place
Whole numbers placed in front of the formulas to balance the number of atoms or moles of atoms of each element on both sides of an equation
combination reaction
A reaction in which reactants combine to form a single product
decomposition reaction
A reaction in which a single reactant splits into two or more simpler substances
double replacement reaction
A reaction in which parts of two different reactants exchange places
endothermic reaction
A reaction in which the energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants
excess reactant
The reactant that remains when the limiting reactant is used up in a reaction
exothermic reaction
A reaction in which the energy of the reactants is greater than that of the products
formula unit
The group of ions represented by the formula of an ionic compound
heat of reaction
The heat (symbol ;H) absorbed or released when a reaction takes place at constant pressure
limiting reactant
The reactant used up during a chemical reaction; it limits the amount of product that can form
molar mass
The mass in grams of 1 mole of an element equal numerically to its atomic mass. The molar mass of a compound is equal to the sum of the masses of the elements in the formula
A group of atoms, molecules, or formula units that contains 6.02 x 1023 of these items
mole-mole factor
A conversion factor that relates the number of moles of two compounds derived from the coefficients in an equation
The loss of electrons by a substance. Biological oxidation may involve the addition of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen
oxidation-reduction reaction
A reaction in which the oxidation of one reactant is always accompanied by the reduction of another reactant
percent yield
The ratio of the actual yield of a reaction to the theoretical yield possible for the reaction that is multiplied by 100%.
The substances formed as a result of a chemical reaction
The initial substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction
The gain of electrons by a substance. Biological reduction may involve the loss of oxygen or the gain of hydrogen
single replacement reaction
A reaction in which an element replaces a different element in a compound
theoretical yield
The maximum amount of product that a reaction can produce from a given amount of reactant

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