Chapter 5 Terms Cell Growth and Division

Term Definition
cell cycle the life cycle of a cell;
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm of the cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell the main ring of DNA
histone a type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
chromatid one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis
chromatin the substance that composes eukaryotic chromosomes; it consists of specific proteins DNA and small amounts of RNA
centromere the region of the chromosomes that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
telomere the region at the tip of a chromosome; a region of repeating DNA sequences that forms one of the end points of the DNA segment that makes up a chromosome
prophase first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
metaphase second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
anaphase third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
telophase last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membrane starts to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble
growth factor broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
apoptosis programmed cell death
cancer a type of disorder of cell growth that results in invasion and destruction of surrounding healthy tissue by abnormal cells
benign having no dangerous affect on health, especially referring to abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
malignant cancerous tumor in which cell breaks away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health
metastasize to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
carcinogen carcinogen substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer
binary fusion a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
tissue a group of similar cells that perform a common function
organ a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
cell differentiation the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
stem cell cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated

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