Chapter 5 Learning Guide- Eurasian cultural traditions

describe legalism
a philosophy which advocated clear rules and harsh punishments as a means of enforcing authority of the state similar to communism and feudalism
in legalism how were farmers, middle class and white collars seen
it was found in the writings of Han Fei
his thinking discredited by the brutality and excess of Shihuangdi’s reign
instead most followed the approach of confucianism
who was Confucius
Chia’s communist leader who in all was associated with class inequality, patriarchy, feudalism, supersistion, all things old
why is confucianism defined as a humanistic philosophy rather than a supernatural religion
confucianism did not entail the idea of having supernatural powers because he was a realist who believed in taking advantage and influencing his ideas in high society
how is the family important in confucianism
was based off the belief that the father should be superior to the son, husband to wife, elders to youngsters
womens role in confucianism
women are supposed to be as quiet as possible, do their work and to please men
they for an education so they could serve their men
they were supposed to be modest and carful, to be humble
hardheaded and practical philosophy
if punishments were heavy, they would easily prevent trouble
restored social harmony
father superior to son
family became model for political life
education not important
withdrawal of world of nature
engourage spiratic behavior
magic, fortune telling, search for immortality
how was daoist thinking different from confucianism
“improvement” doesn’t focus around family and harmony. Instead, unplanned spiratic happenings as well as supernatural forces such as magic, fortune telling, search for immortality
how did classical Hinduism different from other world religions
hinduism was never a single tradition
dissolved into a vast diversity of gods, spirits, beliefs, practices, rituals, philosophers
how are moksha, Karma and reincarnation connected
by having or promoting positive moksha, one can have good karma. good karma = reincarnation
how did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions
instead of achieving moksha, Buddhism strives for enlightenment
difference between Theravada and Mahayana
T: portrayed Buddah as wise teacher and model but not divine
M: more widespread, easier to do
why di buddhism decline in India
buddhism challenged prevailing Hindu thinking, lacked strong routs because of numerous invasions
pure actions
end to painful cycle of rebirth
individual human soul; part of Brahman
Siddhartha Guatama
founder of Buddhism
left family and fortune behind
set out on 6 year journey finally achieving enlightenment
nirvana is enlightenment and end to suffering
zoroastrianism: ahura mazda
monotheistic view of a new god, Ahura mazda who ruled the world and was source of all things good
similarities btwn zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam
great emphasis on free will of humankind and the necessity for each individual to choose btwn good and evil
monotheistic, Yahweh, god of social justice, compassion for poor
how was greek mythology expressed
secret fertility cults, oracles, worship of Dionysus (god of wine)
why has greek mythology been abandoned
to assure a world of physical reality governed by natural laws and to assert that human rationality could both understand laws and work out system of moral and ethical life
distinctive features of greek intellectual tradition
mythology present intellectuals with a challenge to bring some order to their understanding of the world
geographical location presented intellectual stimulation
what did all the early greek thinkers have in common
emphasis on argument, logic
relentless questioning of world
confidence in reason
enthusiasm for puzzling around the world w out much reference to gods
athenian philosopher
wrote nothing
questioned the assumptions of logic of his students
drawing on babylonian astronomy, predicting eclipse,argued moon reflects light of the sun, water cycle
believed chaos and complexity of the visible world lay a simple, unchanging mathematical order
scientist believed that the body was composed of four fluids, when out of balance, caused various ailments
traced origins of epilepsy
sketched out plans for good society
Jesus of nazareth
rural small-town
reflected on lower class
brief public life
performed miracles based off power of god
Siddartha Guatama
leader born into luxury
ignored supernatural
intense self effort
mindfulness-end of suffering
how was christianity transformed after Jesus died
much larger message and audience
Saint paul-missionary journeys in eastern Roman Empire
founding small christian communities
new testament
spread in Roman Empire (10%)
faith spread accompanied by mirages, hearings, casting out demons