# Chapter 5 – Association and Causality

continuous variable

a type of variable that can have an infinite number of values within a specified range; e.g. height and weight.

method of difference

refers to a situation in which all of the factors in two or more domains are the same except for a single factor.

method of concomitant

refers to a type of association in which the frequency of an outcome increases with the frequency of exposure to a factor.

operationalization

refers to the process of defining measurement procedures for the variables used in a study.

inference

the process of passing from observations and axioms to generalizations.

point estimate

The value for the population is referred to as a parameter and the corresponding value for the sample is a statistic.

confidence interval estimate

A range of values that with a certain degree of probability contain the population parameter.

Statistical power

The ability of a study to demonstrate an association if one exists.

statistical significance

False positive rate = p value

P value represents the probability of detecting the association that you found

Less than 5% – statistically significant

P value represents the probability of detecting the association that you found

Less than 5% – statistically significant

need for causal inference

causal inference is more than relying on the statistics of one study

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