2) The historical development of specific languages (how languages are related to one another and have changed through time)
Langue is the formal rules of a language. Parole is language as it is actually spoken by people.
It links language with identity, morality, and aesthetics, shaping our image of who we are as individuals and members of social groups and institutions.
There is no universally correct way to speak any language. From an anthropological perspective, there are only more and less privileged versions of language use.
,used to communicate, and systematic.
Language is effectively limitless, allows people to talk about the past, future, and entire worlds of the imagination, Sounds can be combined in limitless ways to produce meaningful new utterances. Humans speak between 5,000 to 6,000 different languages.
Jakob Grimm (1822) hypothesized that similarities between European languages were a result of shared ancestry
Today, English, German, and Dutch are mutually unintelligible—despite all being derived from Proto-Germanic.
When people are multilingual, their use of each language subtly influences the other languages’ sounds, words, syntax, and grammar.
Linguists studying the phonology of a language catalog its meaningful sounds by identifying minimal pairs: pairs of words that differ only in a single sound contrast.
Since there is a difference in meaning between the words “pat” and “bat,” we can label [p] and [b] as distinct sounds within the English language.
[p] and [b] are called stops because there must be some stoppage of air flow for us to produce these sounds. (In contrast, “vowel” sounds can be held continuously with no stop).
Linguists use similar characteristics of sounds to classify every sound in a given language. Many sounds employed by other languages do not occur in English—for example, the “click” symbolized by “!” in some southern African languages.
reopening the oral cavity so that it stops the flow of
air through the mouth, such as the consonants p, b, t, d, k, and g.
glottis, tongue, teeth, lips, and many other parts moving in concert are required to utter the simplest words and sentences.
Instead, regional dialects and sound changes between generations within communities are greater than ever.
This suggests that, despite media homogenization, peer groups play a much stronger role in the transmission of linguistic forms.
the use of you, gender marking, or the tenses of english(past, present or future)
Stop signs in the United States capitalize on the fact that Americans identify red as a “dramatic,” attention-getting color.
American flag: democracy, free enterprise, hard work, competition, progress, and freedom.
Elaborating symbols like the cow among the Nuer and Dinka peoples of southern Sudan: food, wealth, symbol of society and its parts.
Key scenarios imply how people should act. An American key scenario is the Horatio Alger myth: the idea that anyone can go “from rags to riches” with hard work and perseverance.
Often, this involves using a physical action in a more abstract sense:
“She rose to the challenge and lifted the spirits of those around her.”
Language makes use of signs, symbols, and metaphors to continually reinforce cultural values in the community.
Berlin and Kay (1969) analyzed the color terms of more than 100 languages and found that basic color terms are consistent across languages.
Speakers of vastly different languages did not appear to perceive colors differently; they just classified them differently.
Findings like this do not necessarily disprove the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis or linguistic relativity more generally, but they do argue against linguistic determinism.