Chapter 4 language acquisition

What are speech sounds?
Speech sounds are the acoustic signals languages use to express meaning

What are the phonological differences among languages?
What sounds are used and how the sounds are used

What are phones
Different sounds that languages use

What are phonemes
Meaningfully different sounds in a given language

What are allophones?
Phones that do not change the meaning

What is the task for a language learning children
To figure out which sounds of the language signal meaning distinctions and which do not

What are the phonological structures of words
Syllables, Onset, rime

What is phonetic knowledge
Knowledge of how to combine sounds or the constraints on the sequencing of sounds in a given language

What is voicing ?
Ex. [s] and [z]
Bugs and bikes
When your vocal cords vibrate when you are producing a sound

Cooing and laughing
6-8 weeks. Coos are sounds babies make when they appear to be happy. One long vowel.

Vocal play
16-30 weeks. Also called the expansion stage. Consonant like and vowel like sounds .

Marginal babbling
Long series of vowels that infants produce by the end of the expansion stage

Reduplicated babbling or canonical
Ex. Mamama dada
Reduplicated series of the the same consonant and vowel combination

Nonreduplicated babbling or variegated
Consonant+vowel and consonant+ consonant syllables into series

Wordless sentences

Babbling drift
Prespeech vocal development appears to be universal and the sounds babies produce are similar across environments; sounds that babies produce are somewhat influenced by the language they hear

Speech sounds at the end of the babbling stage
11 different consonants, some vowels, mostly single syllable with some 2 syllable productions

Ex. Yumyum for food
Sensorimotor morphemes Children invent words. Overlap with communicative gestures

Biological process
Physical growth causes changes in language

What are the biological changes ?
Changes in the vocal Tract and facial skeleton; maturing of muscles and sensory receptors; maturation of the central nervous system-lambic area; maturation of higher levels of the brain- motor cortex

Common errors in the phonological process
Reduplication; substitutions of stops for fricatives; reduction of consonant clusters; deletion of sounds

Relationship between phonological development and lexical development
Phonological development influences lexical development by influencing which words children acquire and the rate at which they build their vocabulary; lexical development influences phonological development by prompting new levels of representation and organization of the words as phonological forms

First words
Ex. Mama or byebye
Tend to have sound properties that make them easy to produce; typically are 1-2 syllable; made up of open syllables

Static cue
Ex: mummer
Information that stays the same; doesn’t change in energy, amplitude, and frequency; short indentation

Dynamic cue
Part of the syllable that goes from the static cues to the vowel; long let indentation

Phonological memory
The capacity to remember Newley encountered sound sequences

Methods of studying perception
Habituation, condition head turn procedures, intermodal preferential looking paradigm

At what age does a child begin to relate to another person or object
10-15 months

Infant directed speech

Phonetic features of sounds
Place of articulation, manner of articulation, voicing

Three developmental hypothesis of speech perception
Developmental cue weighting shift hypothesis, Auditory sensitivity hypothesis, Discontinuity hypothesis

Developmental cue weighting shift hypothesis
Assumes that developmental changes in speech perception are driven by cognitive functions; such as attention and memory and our linguistic maturity and experience

Auditory sensitivity hypothesis
Assumes that developmental changes that we see are linked to anatomical differences between children and adults

Discontinuity hypothesis
About changes in amplitude and cues play a significant role in perception by signaling the boundaries between consonant and vowel

Behaviorist theory
Phonological development is based on the behaviorist mechanism of imitation and reinforcement

Universalist approaches
Provides the child with the set of phonetic features and phonological properties that are present in all languages

Biologically based theories
Underlying biological factors such as motor capacity to produce speech shape both the course and phonological development with it’s ultimate result- phonological properties of the language

Connectionist approach
Phonological knowledge is represented using the construct of neural networks;One type of learning mechanism that might explain how phonological development arises from language experience

Vygotsky social development theory
Born with the basic abilities for intellectual development

Piaget developmental theory
4 key stages of cognitive development; active learners who construct know leg from their environment; learn through assimilation and accommodation and complex cognitive development occurs through equilibration

4 stages of development
Sensorimotor: pre-operational; concrete operational; formal stages

Chomsky nativist
Children must be born with an innate capacity for language development

Critical period hypothesis
Notion that a biologically determined period exist; during this stage language acquisition must occur

Functional load
Ex. This and the
The importance of a phoneme in making contrast

Connectionist models
Phonological knowledge is represented using the constructs of neural networks