Chapter 3: Communication and the Self

What is self-concept?
how you perceive yourself
part of the self-esteem that involves evaluations of self-worth
How does self-concept develop?
reflected appraisal through significant others, social comparison through reference groups
What is reflected appraisal?
what you think of yourself based on others’ judgements
What are significant others?
persons whose evaluations are especially influential
What are reference groups?
people who we use to evaluate our own characteristics
What are the characteristics of self-concept?
It is subjective, resists change and should be flexible
What is cognitive conservatism?
tendency to seek information that conforms to an existing self-concept
What four characteristics in others that are required in order to change our self-concept?
person must be someone we see as competent to offer it, appraisal must be perceived as highly personal, appraisal must be reasonable in light of what we believe about ourselves, appraisal must be consistent and numerous
What is self-fulfilling prophecy?
a prediction that causes itself to come true due to the simple fact that the prediction was made.
What are the four stages of self-fulfilling prophecy?
holding an expectation (for yourself or for others), behaving in accordance with that expectation, expectation coming to pass, reinforcing the original expectation
What is the pygmalion effect?
A person expected to perform well will achieve or exceed this expectation, according to the Pygmalion effect, but a person expected to underachieve or perform poorly will also fulfill this expectation.
What is the golem effect?
negative impact on subordinates’ performance that results from low leader expectations toward them.
How do you change your self-concept?
have realistic expectations, have realistic perception of yourself, have the will to change and have the skill to change
What is identity management?
communication strategies people use to influence how others view them
What is perceived self?
person you believe yourself to be in moments of self-examination; who we think we are
What is presenting self?
public image; the way we want to appear to others
What is ‘face’?
socially approved identity
What is facework?
verbal and nonverbal ways in which we act to maintain our own presenting image and the image of others
What are the characteristics of Identity management?
we strive to construct multiple identities,
identity management is collaborative,
Iden. mngmt can be deliberate or unconscious,
people differ in their degree of iden mngmt
What are the characteristics of a high self monitor?
changes rolse often, more likely than self-monitors to copy by seeking help of others and analytical in nature
Why do we manage impressions?
to create and maintain a front to follow social rules, to accomplish personal goals, to achieve relational goals
How do we manage impressions?
Manner, appearance and setting?
What is ‘manner’ in face-to-face identity management?
communicator’s words and nonverbal actions
What is ‘appearance’ in face-to-face identity management?
personal items people use to shape an image
What is ‘setting’ in face-to-face identity management?
physical items we use to influence how others view us
What are the characteristics of self-disclosure communication?
has the self as subject, is intentional, directed at another person, is honest, is revealing, info not easily accessed, gains an intimate nature when expressed
What is the social penetration model?
the breadth and depth of information disclosed
What is the difference between breadth and depth?
Depth is impersonal and depth is personal
What are cliches?
ritualized, stock responses to social situations
What are facts in self-disclosure?
intentional, significant and otherwise not known info
What are opinions in self-disclosure?
often reveal more about the communication than facts do
What are feelings in self-disclosure?
most revealing information of all depths
What is the Johari Window model?
simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group.
Explain the part 1 of the Johari window model?
Part1 represents the ‘Open’ area where information where you and the other person are aware
Explain the part 2 of the Johari window model?
Part2 represents the ‘Blind’ area where information is unaware to you but the other person knows it
Explain the part 3 of the Johari window model?
Part3 represents the ‘Hidden’ area where information you aren’t willing to reveal to others
Explain the part 4 of the Johari window model?
Part4 represents the ‘unknown’ area where information is unknown to you and the other person, finding new things from each other
What is privacy management?
choices people make to reveal or conceal information about themselves
What are the benefits of self-disclosure?
catharsis, self-clarification, self-validation, reciprocity, impression information, relationship maintenance and enhancement, moral obligation, social influence, self defense
What is catharsis?
emotional release, “to get it off your chest”
What is self-clarification?
clarifying your beliefs, values, opinions etc to the other person
What is self-validation?
hope of seeking the listener’s agreement for your own satisfaction
What is reciprocity?
person’s act of self-disclosure increases the odds that other person will reveal personal information
What is impression information?
information intended to impress others or gain their trust or favor
What is relationship maintenance and enhancement?
people who will reveal more will be reciprocated more self-disclosure
What is moral obligation?
disclose personal information to be the responsible thing to do
What is social influence?
reveal personal info to help others (i.e. support groups)
What are the risks of self-disclosure?
rejection, negative impression, decrease in relationship satisfaction, loss of influence, loss of control, hurt the other person
What are the guidelines for self disclosure?
Significance, reasonable, appropriate, reciprocity, constructuve
What are alternative to self-disclosure?
Silence, lying, equivocation, hinting and ethics of evasion
What is silence in self-disclosure?
keeping information to yourself
What is lying in self-disclosure?
a deliberate attempt to hide or misrepresent the truth
What is a benevolent lie in self-disclosure?
not malicious and maybe even helpful lies; similar to white lies
What is equivocation in self-disclosure?
“constructive criticisms”, almost like suggestions aimed to change another’s behaviour
What is hinting in self-disclosure?
seeks to get the desired response from other person, more direct than equivocal statements
What are ethics of evasion in self-disclosure?
providing a way to manage difficult situations that is easier than the alternatives for both the speaker and the receiver of the message.

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