Chapter 3 – Chemical Reactions and the Earth’s Compositions

Chemical Equation
describes the identities and quantities of reactions (substances consumed) and products (substances formed)
of particles (atoms, ions, molecules) contains Avagadro’s number of the particles
Molar Mass
the mass of one mole of the particles that comprise their substance; the M of an element, in grams per mole, is numerically the same as the element’s average atomic mass, in amus
Molecular Mass
the mass of one molecule of a molecular compound
Formula Mass
of a compound is the mass of one formula unit
refers to the quantitive relation between the quantities of reactants and products in a chemical reaction
Law of Conversation of Mass
states that the sum of the masses of the reactants and products in a chemical reactions is the same
the reaction of water with another material
Acid Anhydrides
nonmetal oxides that react with water to produce acids
molecular compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon; are a class of organic compounds
Combustion Reactions
occur between oxygen and another element or compound; when the other is a hydrocarbon, the products of complete combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor
Percent Composition
the percentage by mass of each element in a compound; it can also refer to the percentage by mass of each component in a mixture
Empirical Formulas
represent the proportions of the ions in the formula units
Molecular Ion
formed in a mass spectrometer when a neutral molecule loses an electron after being bombarded with a high-energy beam; it has a charge of 1+ and has essentially the same molecular mass as the neutral molecule from which it came
Mass Spectrum
a graph of the data from a mass spectrometer where m/2 ration of the deflected particles are plotted against the number of particles with a particular mass; because the charge on the ions typically is 1+, m/2 = m/1 = m and the mass of the particle may be read directly form the m/2 axis
Combustion Analysis
a substance is burned completely in oxygen to produce known compounds whose masses are used to determine the composition of the original material
Limiting Reactant
consumed completely in a chemical reaction; the amount of product formed depends on the amount of this available
Theoretical Yield
the amount of product expected for a chemical reaction given a specific quantity of reactant
Actual Yield
the amount of product obtained as a result of a chemical reaction conducted in a lab; often less than the theoretical yield

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