Every non genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
Biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosome; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
Complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes.
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
Twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
The effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
Subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
The principal that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norm prescribe “proper” behavior.
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
Giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.
The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex.
One’s sense of being male or female
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
Social Learning Theory
A theory of learning that says people can learn through observation and direct experience
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally.