Chapter 22 and 23

Carbohydrates
A member of a large class of naturally occuring polyhydroxy ketones and aldehydes
Monosaccharide (simple sugar)
A carbohydrate with 3-7 carbon atoms
Aldose
A monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde carbonyl group
Ketose
A monosaccharide thta contains a ketone carbonyl group
Disaccharide
A carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides
Polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate)
A carbohydrate that is a polymer of monosaccharides
Diastereomers
Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other
Fischer projection
Structure that represents chiral carbon atoms as the intersections of two lines, with the horizontal lines representing bonds pointing out of the page and the vertical lines representing bonds pointing behind the page. For sugars, the aldehyde or ketone is at the top.
D Sugar
Monosaccharide with the -OH group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from teh carbonyl group projecting to the right in a Fischer projection
L Sugar
Monosaccharide with the -OH group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl group pointing to the left in a Fischer projection
Anomers
Cylcic sugars that differ only in positions of substituents at the hemiacetal carbon (the anomeric carbon); the alpha form has the -OH on the opposite side from the -CH2OH; the Beta form has the -OH on teh same side as the -CH2OH
Anomeric Carbon Atom
The hemiacetal C atom in cyclic sugar; the C atom bonded to an-OH group and an O in the ring.
Mutarotation
Change in rotation of plane-polarized light resulting from the equilibrium between cyclic anomers and the open-chain form of a sugar.
Glycoside
A cyclic acetal formed by reaction of a monosaccharide with an alcohol, accompanied by loss of H2O.
Glycosidic bond
Bond between the anomeric carbon atom of a monosacchride and an -OR group
1,4 link
A glycosidic link between the hemiacetal hydroxyl group at C1 of one sugar and the hydroxyl group at C4 of another sugar.
Glycoprotein
A protein that contains a short carbohydrate chain.
Digestion
A general term for the breakdown of food into small molecules.
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
The biochemical pathway that produces ribose (a pentose), NADPH, and other sugar phosphates from glucose; an alternative to glycolysis.
Glycolysis
The biochemical pathway that breaks down a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate plus energy
Fermentation
The production of energy under anerobic conditions
Alcoholic Fermintation
Teh anaerobic breakdown of glucose to ethanol plus carbon dioxide by the action of yeast enzymes
Glycogenesis
The biochemical pathway for synthesis of glycogen
Glycogenolysis
The biochemical pathway for breakdown of glycogen to free glucose.
Gluconeogenesis
The biochemical pathway for the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrates, such as lactate, amino acids, and glycerol.

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