Chapter 2 Organization and Administration Principles and Practices

Formal organizations have been identified by asking the question,
“Who benefits?” Which of the following are considered to be formal organizations?
Mutual benefit associations
Business concerns
Service organizations
e. All are classified as formal organizations.
Beginning in the 1930s, people began to realize the negative effects of some management systems on the worker. A view which arose in policing that management should instill pride and dignity in officers is known as:
human relations management.
In building the organizational structure, which of the following principles would not be considered?
Principle of less authority
Several elements compose the communication process; which of the following is not one of them?
Definitions of leadership include the following statement:
“Working with and through individuals and groups to accomplish organizational goals”
__________ refers to the fact that organizations are composed of people who interact with one another and with people in other organizations.
Social entity
An early school of management theory that is concerned primarily with the efficiency and output of the individual worker.
Scientific management
________ ________, who first emphasized time and motion studies, is known today as the father of scientific management.
Frederick W. Taylor
The theory of POSDCORB, an acronym for:
Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting
Features of the human relations and scientific management approaches were combined in the ________________approach.
systems management
_______________ developed a hierarchy of needs.
Abraham Maslow
_______________ developed the general theory of human motivation.
Douglas McGregor
_______________ developed the “managerial grid,” which emphasized two concerns—for tasks and for people—that managers must have.
Douglas McGregor
The idea of a pure bureaucracy was developed by_____________, the “father of sociology.”
Max Weber
Max Weber argued that if a bureaucratic structure is to function efficiently, it must have the following elements, except:
An organization’s committing such resources as funds, personnel/labor, and equipment toward accomplishing a goal or mission.
An organization’s desired outcome, goods, or services.
____________ precipitates the need for more personnel, greater division of labor, specialization, written rules, and other such elements.
Maslow believed that people’s basic and primary needs or drives are physiological (survival), safety or security, social, ego (self-esteem), and _________________.
a. actualization
An effort to determine the fit between the organization’s characteristics and its tasks and the motivations of individuals is referred to as the ____________ theory.
The tendency for organizations to promulgate written rules, policies, and procedures
has been caused by three contemporary developments that include all except:
civil liability.
The unity of command is the principle holding that only one person should be in command or control of a situation or an employee.
The theory that contends that good leaders possessed certain character traits that poor leaders typically did not is the trait theory.
Studies that led to the theory known as the Hawthorne effect found that worker productivity is more closely related to social capacity than to physical capacity. Non-economic rewards play a prominent part in motivating and satisfying employees.
Early management studies, beginning in the 1920s, indicated that the supervisor who was “employee centered” was more effective than one who was “production centered.”
According to Robert Katz, there are three essential skills that leaders should possess: technical, human, and conceptual.
Trait theory has lost much of its support since the 1950s, primarily because of the development and growth of new, more sophisticated approaches to the study of leadership.
Four different types of formal organizations have been identified by asking the question:
“Who is in charge?”
a. True
Communication within a criminal justice organization may be only downward or upward, due to its organizational structure.
Upward communication in a criminal justice organization is the easiest form of communication as there are fewer barriers than downward communication.
The theory of POSDCORB was emphasized in police management for many years where the needs of workers were adequately addressed.
Social entity is a concept that alludes to the organization’s goals and the public served.
The history of management can be divided into three approaches and time periods: (1) Scientific management (1900-1940), (2) Human relations management (1930-1970), and (3) Direct access management (1965-present).
The autocratic style is worker centered, is primarily democratic in nature, and prefers group participation.
. Three principles of leadership behavior emerged from the Michigan study. These principles included: (1) Employees need some area of freedom to make choices, (2) Leaders should not give task directions to their followers as the workers should be independent, and (3) Leaders must be employee oriented.
In preparing for the workforce of the future, it is important that administrators be prepared for the demographic of workers referred to as Generation X, or Gen Xers (those born between 1945 and 1964).
The Gen Y police officer or prison correction officer should be trained to fit the traditional, “correct” attitude and ways of behaving at the worksite. There is no need for administrators to make training interactive and entertaining.

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