Chapter 2 Midterm and Final Essay Questions

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1. Discuss the ways of amending the Constitution. Discuss the significance of the Bills of Rights and discuss the general content of each. Which right do you feel to be the most important and why?
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1. Proposal: 2 step process: 2 ways to propose and two ways to amend Ways of Amending the Constitution To Propose an Amendment 1. Two-thirds of both houses of Congress vote to propose an amendment or 2. Two-thirds of the state legislatures ask Congress to call a national convention to propose amendments To Ratify an Amendment 1. Three-fourths of the state legislatures approve it, or 2. Ratifying conventions in three-fourths of the states approve it Some Key Facts -Only the first method of proposing an amendment has been used -The second method of ratification has been used only once, to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment (repealing Prohibition) -Congress may limit the time within which a proposed amendment must be ratified. The usual limitation has been seven years -Thousands of proposals have been made, but only 33 have obtained the necessary two-thirds vote in Congress -Twenty-seven amendments have been ratified -The first 10 amendments, ratified on December 15, 1791, are known as the Bill of Rights 2. Discuss what the BOR is 3. Discuss the first 10 amendments
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2. What were the problems with the Articles of Confederation? How would the Constitution address these problems?
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Problems: 1. Congress could not raise taxes (government cannot provide services without money), needed money to fund an army 2. Congress couldn’t regulate commerce (trade between states), each state acted as its own individual country due to taxes and each states had their own individual country due to taxes, and each state had their own trade policies 3. Sovereignty retained by the states (states more powerful than the central government), they did only what was in their best interest 4. One vote in Congress for each state (small states have the same power as more populous states) 5. 9 out of 13 states needed to vote for a national law (southern proposed laws were rejected by the northern states and vice versa) 6. national army was very small and made up of volunteers who probably would be expected to fight without compensation and with their own weapons 7. no national judicial system 8. territorial disputes between states 9. all 13 states must approve of amendments 10. no common currency 11. no sense of unity or idea of nationality How the Constitution Address this: 1. gives Congress power to implement taxes 2. Congress given power to regulate commerce 3. Central government has more power than states 4. votes in Congress depending on population density (House of Representative) (Senate: 2) 5. Majority needed to pass law 6. national army being paid-more incentive 7. we have a national supreme court 8. no territorial disputes 9. Amendment process has been changed (38 states) 10. 1 common national currency 11. sense of unity
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3. How does the government system as set up in the Constitution check against tyranny? What role does federalism, the Bill of Rights, and the check and balance system play in protecting state and individual rights?
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-Individual rights and state rights could be protected -Divided up the power so it would be very difficult to have an all-powerful central government 1. first created a federal system -power is divided between the central government and the states -automatically have separated the power of the central government (60 v. 40) (explain what federalism does) 2. Bill of Rights guarantees individual humans rights and the 10th amendment guarantee the state rights 3. Checks and Balances -no one branch can act completely independent of each other (back it up with examples)

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