Chapter 2 – Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management
Is a systematic decision making process that aims to prevent pests from becoming problems and to determine what actions to take if pest problems occur.
Six elements of Integrated Pest Management
1) preventing organisms from becoming pest problems by planning and managing ecosystems
2) identifying pest and beneficial species
3) monitoring pest and beneficial species populations, pest damage and environmental conditions
4) using injury and action thresholds to determine when to treat pests
5) using treatment that usually includes a combination of methods such as cultural, biological, physical, mechanical, behavioral or chemical methods, to achieve acceptable control with minimal impact on the environment
6) evaluating the effects and efficacy of pest management strategies.
Integrated Pest Management =
-long term solutions to pest problems
-Reduce pesticide use
– Protect Environment and human Health
– minimize harm to beneficial organisms
-Pest control options when pesticides cannot be used
– reduce development of pesticide resistant pests
Elements of Integrated Pest Management (6)
1) Prevention
2)Identification
3)Monitoring
4) thresholds
5)Treatment
6)Evaluation

PIMTTE

Prevention
– Plants or animals that are resistant to disease and insects
-Manage Growing conditions os plants are healthy
– eliminate food sources for pests
-Prevent access to area
Identification
( Is there a pest problem)
(which pest is causing the problem)
-enables manager to research biology and choose effective control methods
-minimizes change benifitial species mistaken for pests
-may indicated treatment not required if beneficial species are present
Monitoring
-regular inspections
-counts and estimates of population size
-written records of counts and observations
– ongoing observations and measurements
Monitoring to determine
– pest damage
-pest presence
-weather conditions
-pests life stage
– host life stage
-beneficial organisms presence
Monitoring helps to
– locate center of infestation
– find cause of pest problem
– select are revise action thresholds
– asses treatment results
– plan improvements of program to make more effective
2 types on monitoring
Visual inspections
Counting and Measuring
Injury and Action Thresholds
Level or amount of damage that leads to a decision
Injury Threshold
When pest population reaches numbers such that it causes unacceptable injury or damage
Action Threshold
Point when treatment should be started in order to prevent pest population from reaching injury threshold
Action Threshold Factors
– type of pest
-pest numbers
-importance of area effected
-state of pest in life cycle
-weather condition
-type and cost of treatment
Treatment types
– Cultural
-mechanical
-biological
-behavioural
-chemical
Cultural
-prevents pest from developing or spreading
-makes evnironment less favourable for pests
– optimum plant growing conditions
mechanical
– use of equipment or barriers
-mulches, mowers, traps,
Biological
– living natural ememy of pest
Behavioural
– releasing sterile male insects
-synthetic pharamones
Chemical
-pesticides
Treatment Selection
– Leaset hazardous to human health
– least toxic or otherwize lease damaging
-most likely to produce long term improvements
– most cost effective
Pesticide resistance
– when pest survives and breeds and makes resistant babies
Avoid pesticide resistance by:
-usinga number of different treatments
-only using pesticides when an action threshold has been reached
– althernating pesticides from different family groups
Environmental Conditions for treatment
– Temperature – parasite may need a certain temp to survive/ some pesticide requuire min temp to be effective
– relative humidity – many plant diseases don’t happen in low humidiy
– precipitation – wash off pesticide
– rain + temp- rain and cool temp may mean egg lagging
– air movement – wind can carry pesticide away from target
-sesitive area – near lakes with fish effects pesticide use
-topography – steep slows = run off.
Evaluation
– post treatment evaluations
– compare post and pre treatment
-reveiw treatment records
– feedback from clients
-improvements to pest management
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