Chapter 2

social theories
systematic ideas about the relationship between individuals and societies
Karl Marx
-founding father of socialist movement
– the idea that the way humans produce the things they need to live is the essential foundation of any society
-classes –> groups of people who share a similar set of economic interests
– The Communist Manifesto
modes of production
dominant economic system in a society and the classes that the economic system gives rise to
forces of production
technological and productive capacity of any society at a given point in time
social relations of production
relationships and inequalities between different kinds of people within the economy
Bourgeoise, proletariat, capital
Bourgeoise –> people who possess capital (money or other assets)
Proletariat –> working class
socialist society
productive forces of society are owned by everyone
class struggle
based on the idea that classes of people who are treated so differently by the economic system are inevitably going to be in conflict with one another.
Emile Durkheim
-founding father of the discipline of sociology
– The rules of sociological method
social facts
regularities and rules of everyday life that every human community has
Social forces
forms of social structure that any individual must operate within
way we learn how to behave in society
Durkheim and suicide
Durkheim concluded that the probability that a certain number of people will kill themselves at a given time and place is in influenced by social factors.
social solidarity
social forces that hold a society together
mechanical solidarity
factors that hold primitive society together, mostly through kinship and family and a collective consciousness shared by all members of the communities
division of labor
specialization of tasks
organic solidarity
as societies involve they are held together through mutual dependence and interdependence with each other
Max Weber
– motives of individual behaviors
– legitimate authority
– status group
person’s ability to achieve his or her objective even if someone else wants to try to prevent it
capacity to get people to do things because they think that they should abide by the commands of people above them
acceptance of the authority of a ruler and/or system of gov’t
gift of grace
status groups
groups of people with similar kinds of attribute or identities like religion, sexual orientation, gender, race, ethnicity and disability status
stratification system
inequalities between groups that persist over time
social closure
various ways groups seek to close off access to opportunities by other groups.
Georg Simmel
any individual stands at the intersection point of overlapping social circles and societies are built upon these social circles
social distance
importance of how close or distant the individuals in a group are, or groups themselves are from one another.
W. E. B Du Bois
-founder of NAACP
– dealt with race and racial inequality
double consciousness
Black americans have to live as a black person, and an american
Karl Marx collaborated with which other sociologist in his sociological writings?
Fredrick Engels
The theoretical works of Emile Durkheim focus primarily on what theme?
social order
Which sociological theorist was most interested in understanding why each of us behaves the way we do
Max Weber
Marx theories are primarily focused on explaining how ________________ perpetuates social inequality, while Du Bois’s theories focus on how ___________ perpetuate inequality
economics; racism
structural functionalism
theory of society in which individuals, groups, and the institution of any society are guided by an overarching social system
conflict theory
all societies are characterized by conflicts that arise from the uneven distribution of power and wealth between groups
symbolic interactionism
a theory of society which focuses on how people interact with one another and the role that symbols play in those interactions.
__________ utilizes the logic of _____ to explain social change
structural functionalism; biology
Symbolic interactionism focuses primarily on which aspect of social life?
how people interact and create shared meaning
which of the following concepts would symbolic interactionists most likely use in their research
impression management
neo- Marxism
capitalist state could forced powerful economic classes to make “concessions” to the working class
capitalist world system
capitalist economies are linked in a global system
increasing flows of good and services across national borders
social construction
process by which people interpret the natural world and make it meaningful
forms of inequality that overlap and potentially reinforce one another.
BOURDIEU –> diverse way in which individuals develop intuitive understandings and engrained habits reflecting their class background and upbringing
cultural capital
type and level of cultural knowledge possessed by an individual. High level signifies high status
social capital
resources available to a particular individual through his or her connections to others
symbolic capital
your reputation
middle range theories
theories that make specific researchable propositions about particular aspects of society that consciously connect social structure with individual action
structural individualism
theory that starts from the proposition that societies rest on the choices and action that individual makes, but in the context of the social forces that shape and constrain individual choice
unlike economics, sociology has many _______ to learn about
theoretical traditions
the sociological theories of marx are focused primarily on
inequality in economic systems
according to the theories of Karl Marx, capitalism, feudalism and communism are all examples of
modes of production
____________ solidarity, unlike _____________ solidarity, is associated with an extensive division of labor in society
organic, mechanical
Durkhaim emphasized _______, while Weber emphasized ______, in his theory of society
social facts ; social action
According to Simmel, the difference between how emotionally close you may feel to you parents when compared to how emotionally unclose you may feel to your dentist is an example of how _____ matters in your daily life
social distance
In a symbolic interactionist framework, physical, social and abstract are all potential ____
subjects of interpretation
Over time, social theoriests have helped us understand how characteristics of individuals, such as race and gender are
social constructions
Which of the following pairs of social theoriest both emphasized how social class matters in social life
Marx and Bourdieu
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