Chapter 2 – Chemistry Flashcard

Element
the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical properties
Substance
matter whose composition is fixed
Molecule
an independent structure consisting of two or more atoms chemically bound together
Compound
type of matter composed of two or more different elements that are chemically bound together
Mixture
a group of two or more substances (elements and/or compounds) that are physically intermingled
Law of mass conservation
the total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction
Law of definite (or constant) compostion
no matter what its source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass
faction by mass (mass fraction)
part of the compound’s mass that each element contributes; it is obtained by dividing the mass of each element by the total mass of compound
percent by mass (mass percent)
fraction by mass expressed as a percentage
law of multiple proportions
if elements A and B react to form two compounds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers
Who created the atomic theory?
Dalton
atoms
tiny indivisible particles of an element that cannot be created or destroyed
Who came up with the the law of conservation of mass?
Lavoisier
Cathode rays
called so because they rays originated at the negative electrode and moved to the positive electrode

Who discovered the electron?

;

J.J. Thomson
Who created the oil-drop experiment for measuring an electron’s charge?
Robert Millikan
Nucleus
contains all the positive charge and essentially all the mass of the atom
Who proposed of the nucleus?
Ernest Rutherford
Isotopes
atoms that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers
Ionic compounds
transferring electrons from the atoms of one element to those of another form these
Covalent Bond
from when a pair of electrons are mutually attracted by the two nuclei
Who created a glass tube with metal electrodes to witness the behavior of cathode rays?
William Crookes
Who discovered the neutron?
Chadwick
Name the 7 famous diatomic molecules
O2, Cl2, Br2, I2, F2, N2, H2
What only has carbons and hydrogen in it?
Hydrocarbons
Name the first ten alkanes
Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane, Heptane, Octane, Nonane, Decane
What do acids form in water?
H+ions
Name the three types of aqueous ionic reactions

Precipitations reactions

neutralization reactions

reactions that form gaseous products

Total Ionic equations
shows all the soluble ionic substances dissociated into ions
Spectator ions
not involved in the chemical change
what do bases produce in water?
OH- ions

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