The Bobo Doll Experiment
Bandura had children witness a model (man who was working for Bandura) aggressively attacking a plastic clown called the Bobo doll. The children would watch a video where the man would aggressively hit a doll and pummel it on the head with a hammer, hurls it down, sits on it and punch it on the nose repeatedly, kick it across the room, flings it in the air, and bombard it with balls. After the video, the children were placed in a room with attractive toys, but they could not touch them. Therefore, the children became angry and frustrated. Then the children were led to another room where there were identical toys used in the Bobo video (with Bobo dolls). Bandura and many other researchers founded that 88% of the children imitated the aggressive behavior. Eight months later, 40% of the same children reproduce the violent behavior observed in the Bobo doll experiment.
Costs involves things that are seen as negatives to the individual such as having to put money, time and effort into a relationship. The benefits are thing things that the individual gets out the relationship such as fun, friendship, companionship and social support.
– Occurs when people think they ought to do something nice for someone who has done something nice for them.
– For example, you may feel compelled to send money to the charity that sent you free return address labels.
– The social norm of reciprocity dictates that we treat other people the way they treat us. People are socialized into returning favors and this powerful rule underpins compliance. Lynn and McCall (1988) found that restaurants who offered a mint or a sweet with the bill received larger tips.
a social standard that says we will help people in need.
“The social responsibility norm looks at how we help people in need.”
Collectivism a cultural orientation in which cooperation and group harmony take priority over purely personal goals. venezuela, colombia, pakistan, peru, taiwan, and china
Attitudes do not always predict behavior.
The learner gave mainly wrong answers (on purpose) and for each of these the teacher gave him an electric shock. When the teacher refused to administer a shock the experimenter was to give a series of orders / prods to ensure they continued. There were 4 prods and if one was not obeyed then the experimenter (Mr. Williams) read out the next prod, and so on.
65% (two-thirds) of participants (i.e. teachers) continued to the highest level of 450 volts. All the participants continued to 300 volts.
Milgram did more than one experiment – he carried out 18 variations of his study. All he did was alter the situation (IV) to see how this affected obedience (DV).
Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being. Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up.
People tend to obey orders from other people if they recognize their authority as morally right and / or legally based. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school and workplace.
-Robbers Cave Study: The experiment was divided into three stages. The first stage being “ingroup formation”, in which upon arrival the boys were split into two approximately equal groups based on similarities. Each group was unaware of the other group’s presence. The second stage was the “friction phase”, wherein the groups were entered in competition with one another in various camp games. Valued prizes were awarded to the winners. This caused both groups to develop negative attitudes and behaviors towards the outgroup. The third and final stage was the “integration stage”. During this stage, tensions between the groups were reduced through teamwork-driven tasks that required intergroup cooperation.