Chapter 16

Term Definition
Caravel a light, fast sailing ship with a rudder and lateen sails
Henry the Navigator son of King John I of Portugal, patron and supporter of explorers
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer who traveled to Calicut, India in 1497
Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who traveled west to reach China but discovered islands in the Caribbean instead
Ferdinand Magellan first explorer to attempt the circumnavigate the globe; while he was killed on the way, some of his sailors completed the journey
Circumnavigate travel completely around the world
Sir Francis Drake English explorer, second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson Dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully for the Northwest Passage and explored the river that is now named after him
Encomienda Spanish system in which a colonist received land and Native American workers to whom he was required to teach Christianity
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer and conqueror of Mexico's Aztec empire
Conquistador Spanish term for conquer; name for Spanish military leaders who fought against the native peoples of the Americas
Moctezuma II Aztec emperor at the time of Cortes's conquest of Mexico
Francisco Pizarro conqueror of Inca Empire in Peru for the Spanish
Atahualpa ruler of Inca Empire killed by Spanish invaders led by Pizarro
Viceroys officials who ruled large areas of Spain's American colonies in the King's name
Bartolome de Las Casas Spanish priest who criticized treatment of Native Americans, suggesting that slaves from Africa be used as laborers instead
Treaty of Tordesillas treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugal along an imaginary line
Columbian Exchange the exchange of plants, and disease due to contact between the peoples of Europe and the Americas
Mercantilism the European economic policy that called for nations to gain wealth in order to build a strong military and expand influence
Balance of Trade the amount of goods sold by a country against those purchased from other countries; a favorable balance of trade meant selling more goods than were bought
Subsides grants of money given by governments for purposes such as helping people start a new businesses
Capitalism economic system in which private individuals rather than governments perform most of the economic activity, with the goal of making a profit
Joint-stock Company a company in which investors buy shares of stock, receiving a portion of the profits, but only losing the amount of their investment if it failed
Plantation estates in the Americas where cash crops were grown on a large scale
Triangular Trade trading network that brought goods from Europe to Africa to be traded for slaves, took the slaves to the Americas to be sold, then brought American goods back to Europe
Middle Passage name for the second leg of the triangle, bringing captive Africans to the Americas, where they were sold as slaves
Olaudah Equiano African who wrote about the horrific conditions Africans endured on Middle Passage voyages
African Diaspora the spread of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western Europe as as result of the slave trade, eventually spreading African culture throughout the Western world

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