Chapter 16

Question Answer
caravel a light, fast sailing ship with a rudder and lateen sails
Henry the Navigator son of King John I of Portugal, patron and supporter of explorers
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer who traveled to Calicut, India in 1497
Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who traveled west to reach China but Discovered islands in the Caribbean instead
Ferdinand Megellan first explorer to attempt the circumnavigate the globe; while he was killed on the way,some of his sailors completed the journey
circumnavigate Travel completely around the world
Sir Francis Drake English explorer, second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson Dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully of the northwest passage and explored the river that is now named after him
encomienda Spanish system in which a colonist received land and Native American Workers to whom he was required to teach Christianity
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer and conqueror of Mexico's Aztec empire
Conquistador Spanish term for conqueror
Moctezuma II Aztec Emperor at the time of Cortes's conquest of mexico
Francisco Pizarro Conqueror on Inca Empire in Peru for the Spanish
Atahualpa Ruler of Inca Empire killed by Spanish
viceroys Officials who ruled large areas of Spain's American colonies
Bartolome de Las Casas Spanish priest who criticized treatment if Native Americans suggesting that slaves from Afica be used as laborers instead
Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americas between Spain and Portgual along an imaginary line
Columbian Exchange the exchange of plants,animals,and diseases due to contact
mercantilism The European economic policy that called for nations to gain wealth in order to build strong military and expand influence
Balance of trade The amount of goods sold by a country against those purchased from other countries
Subsides grants of money given by the government for purposes such as helping people start new businesses
Capitalism economic system in which private individuals rather than governments preform most of economic activity
joint-stock company a company in which investors buy shares of stock receiving a portion of the profits
plantation estates in the Americans where cash crops were grown on a large scale
Triangular trade trading network that brought goods from Europe to africa to be traded for slaves the took the slaves the the americans to be sold
Middle passage name for the second leg of the triangle
Olaudah Equiano African who wrote about the horrific conditions Africans endured on Middle Passage voyages
African Diaspora the spread of people of African descent throughout the Americas and western Europe as a result of the slave trade
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