Chapter 16

Question Answer
Craravel a light, fast sailing ship. It was revolutionary during the Age of exploration because of two main reasons: it was steered with rudder and it was equipped with lateen sails.
Henry the Navigator son of King John I of Portugal. He was a patron and supporter of the explorations who wanted to find a path around Africa to India, but died.
Vasco da Gama a Portuguese explorer who set out for India in 1497. He stopped at several African ports and learn about the Muslim trade involvement. He made it to India
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic to the Caribbean in 1492 with the help to the kings of Spain. He got to the Caribbean but never fully realized he had discovered a new area of the world (he thought it was India).
Ferdinand Magellan an adventurer who sailed west around the world with five ships and about 250 men. Even though he died during his voyage he managed to get his men to be the first to circumnavigate
Circumnavigate sail completely around the world.
Sir Francis Drake English explorer, second man to circumnavigate the globe (or first to actually do it without dying).
Henry Hudson Dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully for the Northwest passage and explored the river that is now named after him
Encomienda a Spanish system in which a colonist received land and Native Americans worked for them in exchange for Christian teachings.
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer who conquered Mexico's Aztec Empire
Conquistador Spanish term for conqueror; name for Spanish military leaders who fought against the native peoples of the Aemricas
Moctezuma II Aztec emperor who was defeated when Cortez reached his empire.
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conqueror of the Inca Empire in Peru
Atahualpa ruler of the Inca Empire killed by Spanish invaders led by Pizarro.
Viceroys officials who ruled large areas of Spain's American colonies in the king's name
Bartolome de Las Casas Spanish priest who criticized treatment of Native Americans, suggesting that slaves from Africa be used as laborer instead.
Treaty of Tordesillas treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americans between Spain and Portugal along an imaginary line
Columbian Exchange Global transfer and contact between Europe and the Americas that led to the widespread of plants, animals, and disease
Mercantilism The European economic policy that called for nations to gain wealth in order to build a strong military and expand influence
Balance of Trade A form of trading of a country were a country receives more gold and silver from other nations than it paid to them
Subsidies grants of money to help business people start a new industry
Capitalism an economic system were most economic activities are carried on by private individuals or organizations in order to seek a profit.
Joint-Stock company company were investors bought shares of stock in the company to fund ever-larger businesses
Plantation estates where cash crops such as sugar or tobacco were grown on a large scale
Triangular Trade Trading network that brought goods from Europe to Africa to be traded for slaves, took the slaves to Americas to be sold, then brought American goods back to Europe
Middle Passage Name for the second leg of the triangle, bringing captive Africans to the Americas, where they were sold as slaves
Olaudah Equiano African who wrote about the horrific conditions Africans endured on Middle Passage voyages
African Diaspora The spread of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western Europe as a result of the slave trade, eventually spreading African culture throughout the Western world

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