Chapter 15 Terms

Bleeding Kansas
-Missouri doesn’t want Kansas to be free state
-Land disputes, thievery, shootings
-Fed gov seemed to back the proslavery forces
New England Emigrant Aid Society
-Yankee Association
-Recruited settlers to keep Kansas Territory a free state
Stephen Douglas
-Popular Sovereignty = fair/good
John Brown
-Went to Pottawatomie Creek 1856 to serve justice
-Killed proslavers
-New wave of fighting in Kansas
Pottawatomie Creek
-Place where John Brown killed proslavers 1856
Railroads: Government Aid
-West railroads in less settled areas, needed public aid
-State/local govs made loans to rail companies, tax exemptions
Railroads: Gauges/Standardization
-Many different gauges (track widths)
-Cities at end of rail lines strived to keep advantages (by not connecting with competing cities)
Railroads: Effect on Local Economies
-Farmers along tracks specialized in cash crops/marketed them to distant locations, used profits to buy manufactured goods
-Stimulated mining/iron industries
Railroads: Reorientation of Trade/Role of Chicago
-Traffic flowed more from west to east over rail lines
-Chicago became region’s hub; linked farms of upper -Midwest to eastern cities around 1855
-Rails = better alternative than shipping to New Orleans, South’s share of western trade decreased
-Weakening political/economic alliance between South and the West
Railroads: Prairie Environment
-Railroad lines fanning from Chicago, farmers acquiring prairie land in Illinois & Iowa, deep black soil
Railroads: New Crops
-Indian grass, Canadian rye, native big bluestem
Railroads: Influence on Urban Areas
-Communities’ economic survival depended on railroad linkage to country side + urban markets
-Railroads bypassed Auburn, Illinois, fate sealed
-Had to adjust to the new railroads
-Physical manifestation of social/economic divisions
-Defined urban landscape
Commercial Agriculture
-Changed landscape/environment
-Prairie farmers introduced new crops into native grasses
-Artificial ecosystem
John Deere/Steel Plow
-John Deere patented sharp steel plow, now soil stuck to blade
Cyrus McCormick/Reaper
-Cyrus McCormick refined a mechanical reaper thing
-Very efficient
Annual Fires
-Western farmers reduced annual fires (set by Indians)
-Lack of fires, trees reappeared on uncultivated land, formed woodlots
Northwest Ordinance/Greater Efficiency
-Northwest Ordinance established precise checkerboard pattern farms
-Artificial ecosystem, western farms more efficient than irregular eastern ones
Battle for Rail Connections
-Communities’ economy depended on railroad connections to other markets
-Communities with rail links had trouble adjusting to them
-Tracks became symbol of social/economic divisions, defined urban landscape
Location of Rail Lines in Cities
-Communities kept railroads away from fashionable neighborhoods, shopping areas, tracks became symbol of divisions (economic + social)
Agriculture vs Industry (% in Agriculture)
-Before Civil War, 60% of laborers were on farms
-1860, that figure dropped below 50% in the North
Reasons for Rise of Industry
-Commercial agriculture expansion led to industrial growth
-8/10 of leading industries processed raw materials from agriculture
-Organized labor, interchangeable parts
Isaac Singer/Sewing Machine
-Isaac Singer used interchangeable parts to produce sewing machines (1851)
-Eve of Civil War, birthrate declining
-Mid 1840’s, mass immigration to America
-1820-1850’s, millions of immigrants, even more after Civil War
-1845-1854 = largest immigrant influx in American history
-Most were young
Conditions in Europe
-Immigrants pushed by deteriorating conditions in Europe
-Potato famine
-Irish were poorer than other immigrants
-Majority after 1845 were Catholic
-Poor, unskilled, congregated in cities
-Religious persecution
-Displaced by landlords
-Small farmers losing business
-Freedom in America
Labor Tensions
-Factories dependent on immigrant labor
-1860, more than half of New England mill workers were foreign-born
-Tensions between native-born and foreign-born workers
Urban Tensions
-High foreign-born population in cities, strained resources
-Poor immigrants lived in overcrowded houses/cellars/shacks
-Urban slums; crime, drinking, bad for families/the poor
-Americans blamed immigrants for lower factory wages/losing jobs
Political Nativism
-Outburst of political nativism in mid 1850’s
-Sparked by fears of America not assimilating with new immigrant customs
Southern Economic Dependence (on North)
-Southern planters prospered in 1850’s, NORTH buying cotton
-White southerners invested in slaves rather than machinery
-South not as industrialized as North
-Southern complaints that the North used its banking/commerce power to convert the South into a colony
-South lacked its own shipping, North controlled Southern commodities
-North placed storage/shipping charges on South
-South resisted federal aid, didn’t want the North to get the profits; weakened South alliance with West
(West needed federal aid for transportation)
-North had industry, demand for skilled labor, immigrants in South went North
-North had bigger population, House of Representatives control, Southern concerns that North would quickly settle western territories
Franklin Pierce
-Franklin Pierce won presidential election of 1852
-Supported Democratic “Young America” movement
“Young America”
-Spread democracy around the world by annexing more territory to United States
Gadsden Purchase
-1853, Franklin Pierce got Gadsden Purchase
-Control of 45,000 miles of Mexican desert, contained practical southern route for a transcontinental railroad
-Pierce failed to acquire Cuba (major goal), Spain rebuffed all efforts
-Rich sugar-producing region
Ostend Manifesto
-1854, American ministers met at Ostend, Belgium
-Recommended that America should seize Cuba
-Contents of this Manifesto were leaked, Pierce renounced Cuba-seizing plans
Transcontinental Railroad-Eastern Terminus
-Stephen Douglas wanted federal lands west of Missouri(economic development)
-Wanted Chicago as eastern terminus of transcontinental railroad to California
-Chicago wouldn’t be chosen over St. Louis or New Orleans until rest of Louisiana Purchase organized (northern rail route would have to run through that region)
Repeal of Missouri Compromise
-MO Compromise of 1820: slavery prohibited in region that Douglas wanted transcontinental rail to run through
-Stephen Douglas removed the MO Compromise (see Kansas Nebraska Act)
Kansas Nebraska Act-1854
-Repeal of MO Compromise
-Created 2 territories: Kansas, and a large Nebraska territory
-Popular sovereignty to decide status slavery in the 2 territories
-Outraged Northern Democrats, Whigs, Free Soilers; chance of slavery gaining more territory
Popular Sovereignty
-Citizens of a territory/region decide if slavery or no slavery
Collapse of 2nd American Party System
-Kansas Nebraska Act increased social/economic tensions of North and South
-Tensions pressured political parties
-Jacksonian party system collapsed in 1850’s; voters switching parties, as realignment completed a new party system emerged divided via sectional lines
Basis of Split of Whigs
-Whigs lost Protestant supporters by seeking Catholic and immigrant support
-Whigs divided by Protestant alcohol prohibitionists
-Northern congressional Whigs opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
-Southern Whigs were in favor of the Act
Basis of Split of Democrats
-Democrats divided by Protestant alcohol prohibitionists
-Half of Northern Democrats in House voted against the Kansas Nebraska Act
Know Nothings
-Organized in NYC
-1853, Know Nothings organizing in other states
Issue of Know Nothings
-“Americans should rule America”
-Thought that immigrants should have to wait 21 years to be naturalized citizens
-Wanted to get rid of politicians who bid for foreign + Catholic votes
-Immigrants voted illegally, caused urban crime, drank heavily
-Didn’t like Catholics (“undemocratic” hierarchy)
-Know Nothing message appealed to young native-born Americans
-Won some victories in 1854 elections, spread nationwide, confident about getting the presidency
Know Nothing Decline
-Know Nothing officeholders were incompetent
-Lost voters upon failure to enact programs
-Rising sectional tensions (over slavery)
Basis of Republican Party Power
-Republicans intended to get presidency by sweeping the free states, which controlled a majority of the electoral votes
Kansas Elections and its Status
-Race between North and South to settle Kansas; popular sovereignty
-First Kansas elections (1854/1855), Missourians poured into Kansas, seized polls, stuffed ballot boxes
-Popular sovereignty tarnished by the voter fraud
-Proslavery forces gained majority in Kansas legislature; expelled free-state member, enacted code restricting several rights
-1855, free-staters organized separate gov, drafted state constitution prohibiting slavery, asked Congress to admit Kansas as free state
-Violence broke out between pro and anti slavery forces
Caning of Charles Sumner
-1856, Republican Senator Charles Sumner’ gave anti-slavery speech; “The Crime Against Kansas”
-Insulted South Carolina and its senator Andrew Butler
-Preston Brooks (SC congressman) related to Andrew Butler
-Preston Brooks angry at insults to his relative, brutally caned Charles Sumner
-Southern reaction; Preston Brooks = hero for caning
Andrew Butler/Preston Brooks
-SC senator Andrew Butler directly insulted by Charles Sumner’s speech
-Preston Brooks = relative of Butler, avenges his relative by caning Sumner
Election of 1856
-(WON THE ELECTION) Democrats nominated James Buchanan of Pennsylvania (unassociated with repeal of MO Compromise, had a chance to win)
-American party nominated former president Millard Fillmore
-Republicans nominated John C. Fremont
James Buchanan
-Was out of the country when Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed
-Politically experienced, not hated by slave states
John C. Fremont
-Western explorer, helped liberate California during Mexican War
Millard Fillmore
-Former president (in the past he took over after Zachary Taylor died)
Republican Party Ideology
-Slavery degrades labor
-Slavery bad, would drive free labor from the territories
-South = very bad, North = opportunity
-Hard work, self-discipline; all available in North
-End slavery expansion; preserve economic independence for white Americans
-Blind to how industrialization hindered social mobility for poor workers
-Slavery = morally wrong, incompatible with Christian ideals
Harriet Beecher Stowe and “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
-Strengthened moral opposition to slavery
Abraham Lincoln
-Republican leader
-Immediate question = slavery possibly spreading to new territories/states
Concept of “Slave Power”
-Slave Power = political influence of the planter class
-Republicans claimed Slave Power wanted to destroy liberties of northern whites
James Buchanan’s Presidency
-James Buchanan (Democrat) won the election of 1856
-Fire Eaters = Radical Republicans/secessionists of the Deep South
Dred Scott
-Missouri slave
Dred Scott vs Sandford (1857)
-Dred Scott taken by owner to live in Illinois (free state) + Wisconsin Territory (slavery banned there by Missouri Compromise)
-Scott returned to Missouri with owner
-Scott sued for his freedom; because of temporary residence in free state/territory
-Scott lost the case
Dred Scott vs Sandford: Citizenship
-Chief Justice Roger Taney of Maryland argued that Missouri Law took precedence, and it dictated that Scott was still a slave
Dred Scott vs Sandford: Missouri Compromise
-Led to MO Compromise being ruled unconstitutional; Supreme Court declared that Congress had no power to ban slavery in any territory of the United States
Dred Scott vs Sandford: Popular Sovereignty
-Court’s decision implied that popular sovereignty was unconstitutional; if Congress can not prohibit slavery, then it could NOT authorize territorial legislatures to do so
Dred Scott vs Sandford: Congress
-(same as above) Court’s decision implied that popular sovereignty was unconstitutional; if Congress can not prohibit slavery, then it could NOT authorize territorial legislatures to do so
Panic of 1857
-Economic depression
-Boom led to bust as wheat prices dropped, contracted credit hurt commercial farmers, overextended railroad investors
-South less affected than North
Economic Issues as Sectional Issues
-South less affected than North, Southern secessionists claimed the South could survive as an independent nation
Lecompton Constitution
-June 1857, Kansas elected delegates to draft state constitution; free-state voters boycotted the election
-Pro-slavery forces had more control of the convention that met in Lecompton
-Delegates drafted a constitution; slavery = legal
-Voters could not against the constitution/vote to get rid of slavery entirely
-Again, free-state voters boycotted election
-Lecompton Constitution approved at the time
-Congress returned it to Kansas for another vote, where it was defeated
Lincoln/Douglas Debates (1858)
-7 debates, Lincoln v.s. Douglas; issues of slavery + sectional controversy
-Douglas: American government made by white man for white man
-Lincoln: Didn’t want to interfere with slavery in the South, BUT spread of slavery to the territories = bad
“House Divided” Speech
-Lincoln’s acceptance speech for Republican nomination for senator, 1858
-Government can not endure being half-slavery and half-free
-Douglas claimed this speech preached sectional warfare
Lincoln’s Character
-Lacked formal schooling
-Had disciplined self-education
Freeport Doctrine
-Debate at Freeport, Illinois
-Lincoln asked Douglas; under Dred Scott Decision, how could people of a territory lawfully exclude slavery before statehood
-Douglas’ Freeport Doctrine: slavery could only exist with protection of law, slaveowners would not bring slaves into area that didn’t have slave code
-If the people of a territory didn’t pass a slave code, then slavery wouldn’t established there
Aspects of South’s Internal Crisis
-South worried that “Black Republicans” would undermine the Slave Power
-Price of slaves rose, proportion of southerners with slaves dropped
-Land being consolidated into larger holdings (evidence of declining opportunity for white southerners)
-California and Kansas had been closed to southern slaveholders unfairly
-South had growing sense of moral/political isolation
-1850’s, slavery abolished in most of the Americas, -South losing political power
-Expansion of slavery was only chance to preserve the South’s power/way of life
Harper’s Ferry
-1857, John Brown (abolitionist) returned to East from Kansas, wanted to attack slavery in the South itself
-1859, Brown and followers seized federal armory at Harpers Ferry in Virginia
-Brown failed to rally slaves, Brown and followers holed up in armory, being shot at by hostile townspeople
-Brown and followers captured by Colonel Robert E. Lee’s federal troops
-Brown’s raid weakened forces of compromise/moderation
John Brown’s Martyrdom
-Brown hung for treason
-Some Republicans endorsed Brown as a saint/martyr
-Southerners shocked at those sympathizing with Brown, believed Republican party connected to the raid
Split in Democratic Party
-Democratic convention in South Carolina, southern radicals pressed for a federal slave code
-Convention adopted Douglas platform; popular sovereignty
-Delegates from 8 southern states walked out
-Unable to agree on candidate, convention reassembled
-Nominated Stephen Douglas
-Most of remaining southern Democrats left in disgust; Democratic walk-outers convened and nominated own candidate, VP John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky
-Breckinridge’s platform; supported a federal slave code
-Democratic party had shattered
Federal Slave Code
-Southern demand to make Dred Scott ruling an official law to protect slavery in territories
-Supported by John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky
Republican Convention
-Republicans turned to Abraham Lincoln
Election of 1860-Two Contests
-North (majority of electoral votes), only Lincoln and Douglas had a chance of carrying a state
-South, Breckinridge v.s. John Bell (Constitutional Union Party)
-LINCOLN WON ELECTION, although he received less than 40% popular and had no Southern support; relied entirely on the free states alone
-Republicans still did not control either house of Congress
-Southern fears that Lincoln would use federal aid to get the border states to free their slaves, putting 3/4 majority of states against slavery
-Southern fears that Lincoln would send more John Browns South for rebellions
Confederate States of America
-Secession seemed only alternative to protect southern equality/liberty
-South Carolina determined to force other southern states to act
-1860, popular convention passed resolution seceding from the Union
-Rest of Deep South followed
-1861, states from South Carolina to Texas; Confederate States of America
-Jefferson Davis = president of Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
-President of the Confederate States of America
Upper South/Border States
-Upper South/Border States declined to secede, hoping Congress could patch together a settlement
Crittenden Compromise
-Senator John Crittenden of Kentucky proposed amendment; extend the old Missouri Compromise line to California
-Slavery would be prohibited north of this line and given federal protection south of it in all territories (+ any acquired in the future)
-Also proposed “unamendable amendment”; slavery preserved forever in states where it already existed
-Crittenden Compromise failed; the 2 groups required to make concessions (Republicans + secessionists) had no interest in doing so
-War ended possibly that unamendable amendment be ratified
Lincoln’s Inaugural Address
-Lincoln sought to reassure southerners that he had no intention (“directly or indirectly”) to interfere with slavery in US where it already exists
-Union of the states is perpetual, no state could leave Union by its own action
-Intended to hold/occupy federal property and collect customs duties via tariff
Fort Sumter-Charleston, SC
-Major Robert Anderson, at Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor (in the South), informed government that without a resupply he would have to surrender
-Lincoln eventually sent relief expedition; notified South Carolina governor that supplies were being sent, if fleet allowed to pass only food would be landed
-Jefferson Davis didn’t want to allow US to hold property/base within Confederacy (might destroy claims of independence)
-Davis had Confederate commander at Charleston demand surrender of Fort
-Anderson declined to surrender, Confederates shelled Fort Sumter
-Anderson surrendered, Lincoln sent 75,000 volunteers to put down rebellion
-4 states in Upper South (led by Virginia) also seceded
Roots of Divided Society: Economic
-North: factories, urban workers, cities/towns
-South: agriculture, rural, southern way of life = crop labor
Roots of Divided Society: Weakness in Political System
-South: much harder to elect one of their presidential candidates
-Electoral vote system; small majority = gain all electoral votes in state
Roots of Divided Society: Belief in Conspiracies
-Republicans believed in the Slave Power eradicating northern rights
-Southerners accused Black Republicans of destroying southern equality
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