Chapter 14_ Personality_True-False Questions_Fall 2015_Gonzaga_Crawford.

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Personality refers to a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, mannerisms, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual.
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In Freud’s theory of personality, there are five major systems that influence a person’s actions.
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Freud believed that the ego was the first of the personality components to become evident.
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Freud believed that the id was the first of the personality components to become evident.
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According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the ego to prevent threatening thoughts from entering consciousness.
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Displacement is said to occur when people direct their emotions toward things, animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings.
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According to Freud, when the Oedipus complex is resolved by about age 5 or 6, the child’s personality has been formed.
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The defense mechanism of projection is illustrated by the behavior of a 12-year-old boy who starts having tantrums after his family moves to a different state.
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The defense mechanism of regression is illustrated by the behavior of a 12-year-old boy who starts having tantrums after his family moves to a different state.
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. In Jungian theory, an archetype is a universal symbolic image that appears in myths, art, and dreams.
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In Jungian theory, the collective unconscious is the universal memory and experience of humankind represented in the symbols, stories, and images that occur across all cultures.
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Carl Jung’s theory of personality emphasizes the methods of empirical psychology in generating personality constructs.
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Although Carl Jung was fascinated with the darker aspect of human personality, he also had confidence in the positive strength of the ego.
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To object-relations theorists, the central problem in life is to find a balance between the need for independence and the need for others.
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According to object-relations theory, a baby constructs unconscious representations of his or her parents, which will influence the child’s relations with others throughout life.
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According to the object-relations school, men develop more rigid boundaries between themselves and other people.
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Most of the cornerstone assumptions in psychoanalytic theory have not been supported scientifically.
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Although modern psychodynamic theorists differ in many ways, they share a general belief that the way to understand personality is by exploring its unconscious dynamics and origins.
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One of the difficulties of retrospective analysis as the foundation for theory development is the fact that it creates an illusion of causality between events.
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Objective tests are standardized questionnaires that require written responses.
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Gordon Allport was one of the most influential psychologists in personality theory.
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Central traits are changeable aspects of personality, such as musical preferences, habits, and casual opinions.
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Secondary traits are changeable aspects of personality, such as musical preferences, habits, and casual opinions.
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Raymond B. Cattell advanced the study of personality by applying a statistical method called case-study analysis.
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The Big Five personality traits are fairly stable throughout a person’s life.
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The Big Five personality traits are influenced by maturation and aging.
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The Big Five personality traits represent all of the traits that make up personality.
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One way the genetic contribution to personality can be explored is by studying the temperaments of human infants and children.
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Temperaments are physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways.
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Temperaments fluctuate dramatically over time.
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Heritability is an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of behavior and personality.
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. Social-cognitive learning theory emphasizes the continual interaction between persons and a given situation.
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The process of reciprocal determinism helps explain the influence of the nonshared environment on personality.
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According to your textbook, the shared environment of the home has relatively little influence on personality.
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Few parents have a single childrearing style that is consistent over time.
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According to your textbook, there appears to be little relation between what parents do in childrearing and the way children eventually turn out.
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A behavioral-genetics researcher is likely to state that parents cannot take full responsibility for the way their children turn out.
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Even traits that are highly heritable are not rigidly fixed.
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When parents value academic achievement but the child’s peers do not, the child usually follows the parental lead and values academic achievement.
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In collectivist cultures, the self is often defined as a collection of personality traits.
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In collectivist cultures, group harmony takes precedence over the wishes of the individual.
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In individualist cultures, the self is often defined as a collection of personality traits.
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In individualist cultures, group harmony takes precedence over the wishes of the individual.
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In a study mentioned in the textbook, Chinese and American pairs of players had to play a communication game that required each partner to be able to take the other’s perspective. Eye-gaze measures showed that the Chinese players were almost always able to take their partner’s perspective, whereas the American players often completely failed at this task.
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People from individualist cultures tend to regard \”personality\” and the sense of self as being more flexible than do people from collectivist cultures.
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Humanist psychology emphasizes the scientific understanding and assessment of human behavior.
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Humanist psychology is sometimes called \”the third force\” in psychology.
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The humanist who described the importance of having peak experiences was Carl Rogers.
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The humanist who described the importance of having peak experiences was Rollo May.
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Abraham Maslow suggested that personality theorists study healthy, strong, creative individuals.
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Abraham Maslow suggested that the most important personality traits were the \”Big Five.\”
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Carl Rogers maintained that to become fully functioning, a person needs to receive unconditional positive regard.
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According to Rollo May, the price of free will is often anxiety and despair.
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The humanist approach suggests that despite genetic, environmental, cultural, and psychodynamic influences, people can exercise free will to determine the kind of person they will become.
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