Chapter 13 Study Guide (Biology)

Selective breeding
Allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to reproduce.
Hybridization
Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
Inbreeding
The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Genetic engineering
Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism.
Restriction Enzyme
An enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.
Gel electrophoresis
The process by which DNA fragments can be separated an analysed
PCR
A technique that allows biologist to copy DNA.
Plasmid
A small, circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
Genetic marker
A gene (after an antibacterial) that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that don’t carry the desired plasmid
Transgenic
Containing genes from other species
Clone
A member of a population with genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
Primers
Short pieces of complimentary DNA
Polyploidy
Plants that contain an extra set of chromosomes.
Gene therapy
A process by which an absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal, working gene.