Chapter 13

Bond Length

the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms connected by a bond; the distance where the total energy of a diatomic molecule in minimal

Covalent Bonding

a type of bonding where the electrons are shard by atoms

Polar Covalent Bonding

a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts them more strongly than the other


the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself. 

Dipole Moment

a property of a molecule whose charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge

Isoelectronic Ions

ions containing the same number of electrons

Lattice Energy

The energy change occurring when seperated gaseous ions are packed together to form an ionic compound

Single Bond

a bond in which one pair of electrons is shared by two atoms

Double Bond

a bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.

Triple Bond

a bond in which three pars of electrons are shared by two atoms

Localized Electron Model

a model that assumes that a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms. 

Lone Pairs

an electron pair this is localized on a given atom; an electron pair not involved in bonding.

Bonding Pairs

a electron pair found in the space between two atoms.

Octet Rule

the observation that atoms of nonmetals tend to form the most stable molecules when they are surrounded by eight electrons


a condition occurring when more than one valid Lewis Structure can be written for a particular molecule. The actual electronic structure is not represented by any on of the lewis structures but by the average of all of them.

Formal Charge

the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion derived from a specific set of rules. 

Molecular Structure

the 3D arrangement of atoms in a molecule. 

Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion



a model whose main postulate is that the structure around a given atom in a molecule is determined principally by minimizing electron-pair repulsions. 

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