Chapter 12: Motivation and Work

Motivation
a need or desire that pushes us to do something that needs to be done.
Instinct
a behavior that an organism is born with and does not need to learn.
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiology need creates a drive that motivates an organism to satisfy that need.
Homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a healthy level.
Incentive
a positive motivational influence.
Hierachy of Needs
Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, begining at the base with physiological needs that must be satisfied before higherlevel safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Insulin
a hormone produced by the pancreas and released in response to high blood glucose following a meal.
Set Point
the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 476).
Basal Metabolic Rate
rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest.
Anorexic Nervosa
an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Sexual Response Cycle
The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
Refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 482).
Sexual Disorders
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
Estrogen
female sex hormone.
Testosterone
male sex hormone, present in both genders but dominantly in males.
Sexual Orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex or the other sex, (Gay, Straight, or Bi)
Flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills.
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of a skill and attaining a higher standard.
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.