Chapter 11,12,13

Flashcard maker : Karlie Mack
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of
The brain and spinal cord
The epidural space contains
Loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose
The meninges consists of
The pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater
Cerebrospinal fluid is
Clear and liquid
In a subdural hematoma resulting from a blow to the head, blood accumulates between the
Dura mater, and arachnoid
An inflammation of the meninges called meningitis usually affects the
Arachnoid matter, and pia mater
The what is the thin meninx attached to the surface of the brain, containing many nerves and blood vessels
Pia mater
Most cerebrospinal fluid is secreted from the choroid plexuses in the
Lateral ventricles
The fourth ventricle is in the
Brainstem
Cerebrospinal fluid
Informs the autonomic centers in the brain stem and hypothalamus about the internal environment Provides a pathway for a waste to enter the blood Protects the brain and spinal cord
The human body secretes about how many milliliters of cerebrospinal fluid daily
500
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by what and it
Choroid plexuses in the ventricles; protects the brain from blows to the skull
Which of the following lists the parts of a reflex are in the correct sequence?
Receptor,sensory neuron,interneuron, motor neuron, effector
Reflexes help control
Heart rate and blood pressure Respiratory rate Digestive activities
When the flexor muscles of one arm contract in a withdrawal reflex, the extensor muscles of the other arm contract. This phenomenon is called
Crossed extensor reflex
Stephanie is in a car accident, flung from her vehicle and landing on her back on pavement. At the scene, an emergency medical technician checks her Babinski reflex, in which the great toe extends upward and the smaller toes fan apart. This reflex
May indicate an injury to the corticospinal tract
The expected response to the triceps-jerk reflex is
Extension of the forearm
The spinothalamic tract conducts impulses
Up the spinal cord to the thalamus
Gray matter of the spinal cord is mostly composed of
Interneurons
The pattern of gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into
Horns
Which of the following are descending tracts in the spinal cord
Rubrospinal
The corticospinal tracts control
Voluntary muscle movements
If the right lateral spinothalamic tract is severed
Pain impulses from the left side are blocked
If the left corticospinal tract is severed in the neck near the first cervical vertebra
Muscles in the left arm and leg are paralyzed
The spinal cord has
31 segments A cervical and lumbar enlargement. A core of gray matter surrounded by white matter
All reflexes
Have a reflex arc
The simplest level of CNS function is the
Spinal reflex
Over the course of several months, Morris has experienced difficulty speaking coherently, clumsiness, muscle fasciculations, and increasing weakness in his limbs. These symptoms are most consistent with those of
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscular movements is the
Cerebellum
Which of the following is a major portion of the diencephalon
Thalamus
The complex network of tiny islands of gray matter in the brain, that upon receiving incoming sensory impulses responds by activating wakefulness in the cerebral cortex, is the
Reticular formation
A newborn has a CT scan of the brain to identify a cause of seizures. The scan showed no convolutions (gyri) of the cerebral cortex. She has
Lissencephaly
If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca’s area is damaged
Motor control of the muscles associated with speech is lost
The primary motor area of the brain is in the
Precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe
A soldiers suffers a brain injury, and becomes unable to speak. The damage is likely in
Broca’s area
The function of the cerebral association areas is
To analyze sensory experiences. Reasoning and judgement. To interpret sensations
The basal nuclei include the
Putamen
Which lobe of your brain are you using when you answer this question?
Frontal
which of the following is not a part of the diencephalon?
Anterior pituitary gland
Which of the following parts of the mature brain develops from the forebrain ?
Thalamus
The what separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
Transverse fissure
Which of the following is not a function of the hypothalamus?
Control of postural reflexes
Spina bifida is a(n)
Abnormality in neural tube development Open cerebral column and exposed spinal cord Exposed spinal cord
Aphasia is loss of the ability to
Speak
Interruption of blood flow to the brain that can damage the cerebrum is called a
Cerebrovascular accident
Injury to the visual cortex of the right occipital lobe can cause
Partial blindness in both eyes
If the general interpretative area of the dominant hemisphere is damaged in a child, the
Corresponding region on the opposite side of the brain may take over the interpretative functions
Brain waves are recordings of activity in the
Cerebral cortex
Which of the following terms and definitions is correct?
Cerebral cortex-a thin layer of gray matter forming the outermost part of the cerebrum
The consequence of sensory nerve fibers crossing over is that the
Right hemisphere of the cerebrum receives sensory impulses originating on the left side of the body and vice versa
Basal ganglia are located in the, ________ and _______
Deep regions of the cerebral hemispheres; aid control of motor activities
If the reticular formation is injured, the person might exhibit signs of
Unconsciousness, or coma
The part of the brain that assigns value to memory is the
Amygdala
Dopamine is secreted by the what, and is deficient in what disease
Substantia nigra; Parkinson
A spinal nerve passing through the intervertebral foramen is
Associated with the vertebra above
The phrenic nerves arise from the
Cervical plexuses
The area of the skin that sensory fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate is called a
Dermatome
The somatic nervous system consists of nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the , ________ whereas the autonomic nervous system consists of fibers that connect the
Skin and skeletal muscles; CNS to the visceral organs
Which of the following are generally adrenergic fiber
Sympathetic postganglionic fiber
Bob witnesses an auto accident and impulses from the ___________ division of the autonomic nervous system increase his heart rate
Sympathetic
The drug atropine influences the autonomic nervous system by
Blocking the action of acetylcholine
Aging of the brain begins
Before birth
Over a lifetime, the brain shrinks by about ________ percent
10
A person in a persistent vegetative state
Can move, but seems unaware of self
Symptoms of concussion include all except
Decreased sensitivity to light and sound
A lumbar puncture is
A test of the pressure that the cerebrospinal fluid is under
In spastic paralysis
Muscle tone increases and the muscles do not atrophy
A Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from
Mechanical force
The part of the brain that is overactive in post traumatic stress disorder is the
Amygdala
Melinda has Parkinson’s disease. Her movements are slowing and she has difficulty initiating voluntary muscular actions. The region that is affected in her brain is the
Basal ganglia
Brain waves during sleep are what waves
Delta
The brain waves most closely associated with mental activity are
Beta waves
Spinal nerve injury may result from
Fracture of vertebrae, dislocations, or birth injuries
The brain has about one hundred million neurons.
False
The subarachnoid space within the meninges contains cerebrospinal fluid.
True
The dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges.
True
The choroid plexuses project into the ventricles.
True
The gray commissure of the spinal cord surrounds the central canal.
True
Nerve tracts other than the corticospinal tracts that transmit impulses into the spinal cord are called extrapyramidal tracts.
True
Spinal shock is a permanent loss of some of the spinal cords functions.
False
If fibers in the ascending tract of the spinal cord are cut, the affected person will have of motor functions below in injury.
False
The arbor vitae is in the cerebrum.
False
Brain damage to the temporal lobe, where recent memory is processed, can impair long-term memory.
True
The epineurium is composed of nervous tissue.
False
Spinal nerves are grouped and named according to function.
False
Autonomic ganglia provide a degree of independence from the CNS by integrating motor impulses before they are relayed to visceral organs.
True
Sympathetic tone is continuous stimulation of smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels, which results in partial constriction.
True
Receptors for the general senses are found
Widely distributed throughout the body
Receptors for the special senses are found
Primarily in the head
The brain interprets input for sensory receptors as
Perception
Sensory receptors include
Mechanoreceptors Chemoreceptors Photoreceptors
The ability to ignore your socks around your ankles demonstrates
Sensory adaptation
The sequence of information flow in response to biting into a slice of pizza is
Sensory receptors activated, impulse sent to CNS, sensation, perception
Max returns to his dorm room late at night to find his roommate throwing up. The smell is at first so bad that Max wants to vomit too, but after helping his roommate clean up, the odor seems to fade. Max has experienced
Sensory adaptation
Sensory impulses are stimulated at receptors by
Local changes in their cell membrane potentials
Olfactory receptors, which provide the sense of smell, are
Chemoreceptors
A sensation is what, and projection of a sensation is the
A feeling the results from sensory stimulation, brain causing it to seem to come from the receptors being stimulated

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