Chapter 11: Motivation and Work

motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues; when its level is low, we feel hunger

set point
the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set; when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

basal metabolic rate
the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure

anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

binge-eating disorder
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa

sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson–excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

estrogens
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics

testosterone
the most importent of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional amount in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex or the other sex

flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills

industrial-organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard

task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

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