Chapter 10 – Part 3

Language
Chomsky

Language Acquisition Device
Governs the learning of language during infancy and early childhood

Chomsky
proposed innate language acquisition device (LAD) that contains schema for language (Schema – mental molds into which we pour our experiences)
– Every child is born with a biological predisposition to learn a language – any language
– At birth infants can distinguish speech sounds, no matter what language is spoken in their homes or around them
– Lose ability by the age of 10 months

Universal Progressive Stages
– Cooing – vowel sounds produced 2-4 months
– Babbling – consonant/vowels sounds between 4-6 months
– One-word Speech – Holophrases
– Telegraphic Speech
– Whole Sentences

APGAR
Scoring system for evaluating newborns
A = Appearance
P = Pulse
G = Grimace
A = Activity
R = Respiration

Innate Behaviors
Clinging
Cuddling
Crying
Cooing
Smiling
Gazing
All are helpful in eliciting caretaking responses from parents

Six Motor Milestones
– Raising head (2-4 months)
– Rolling over (2-5 months)
– Sitting with support (4-6 months)
– Sitting without support (6-7 months)
– Crawling (7-8 months)
– Walking (8 months – 1 year)

Assimilation
Children first try to understand new thing by fitting them into existing schemas

Vygotsky
Temperment

Scaffolding
skilled learner gives help to less skilled learner reducing help as learning occurs

Easy
– “Easy” babies are regular in their schedules of waking, sleeping, and eating and are adaptable to change
– Easy babies are happy babies and when distressed are easily soothed

Difficult
– “Difficult” babies are almost the opposite of easy ones
– Difficult babies tend to be irregular in their schedules and are very unhappy about change of any kind.
– They are loud, active, and tend to be crabby rather than happy
– Slow to warm up
– This kind of temperament is associated with infants who are less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult children but who are slow to adapt to change
– If change is introduced gradually, these babies will “warm up” to new people and new situations

Attachment
The emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver

Harlow
used monkeys to show a preference for comfort over food

Bowlby and Ainsworth
measured Attachment with Strange Situation

Mary Ainsworth
model of attachment

Strange Situation
Exposing an infant to a series of leave-takings and returns of the mother and a stranger – Ainsworth

Secure
Willing to get down from their mother’s lap when they first entered the room with their moms. They happily explored, looking back at their mothers and returning to them every now and then (“touching base”)

Insecure
Occurs when parent are neglectful, inconsistent, or insensitive

Avoidant
– In contrast, avoidance babies, although somewhat willing did not “touch base.”
– They did not look at the stranger or the mother and reacted very little to her absence or her return
– Seeming to have no interest or concern

Ambivalent (have mixed feelings about something)
Ambivalent babies in Ainsworth’s study were clinging and unwilling to explore

Disorganized-Disoriented
In subsequent studies, other researchers found that some babies seemed unable to decide just how they should react to the mother’s return.