Chapter 10

What are the characteristics of synthesis?

2 elements for reactants and 1 compound for the product

Releases energy

What do reactions between a metal oxide and water produce?

Metal hydroxides

(bases)

 

What do reactions between a nonmetal oxide and water produce?
An acid

What happens to H2CO3 upon formation?

 

It immediately decomposes into H2O and CO2
What are the characteristics of a decomposition reaction?

One single reactant (compound) and two or more products

Requires energy

What do compounds containing carbonate

(CO32-) decompose into?

A metal oxide and CO2
What do compounds containing hydroxide (OH) decompose into?
A metal oxide and H2O
What do compounds containing chlorates (perchlorate, chlorite, chlorate, or hypochlorite) decompose into?
A metal chloride and oxygen
What are the characteristics of a single replacement reaction?

Reactants = Element + Compound 

Products = A new compound and a single element

Use the activity series of metals

If the element (a metal) is higher on the chart than the element in the compound, the reaction will happen

(element=nonmetal, use periodic table and see if element is higher up in the group)

What are the characteristics of a double replacement reaction?

  • Two ionic compounds for reactants
  • Two new ionic compounds for products
  • Formation of precipitate in reaction
  • Water could be one of the products
  • Same rules for replacement apply

In what order should you replace and criss cross in a double replacement reaction?

(Example: H2SO4 + Al(OH)3)

Use a piece of paper and check your results after completion, if you want

First combine the H and OH. H is the farthest right and goes in front of OH

Do not pay attention to their current subscripts, only their charges

H+ OH—-> HOH, which = H2O

Then combine the Al and SO4

The first element of the second compound always goes in front of the second element/polyatomic ion of the first compound

Al3- SO42- —-> Al2(SO4)3

What are the characteristics of a combustion reaction?

One reactant = hydrocarbon (compound carbon and hydrogen)

Always combined with oxygen

Products are always CO2 and H2O



What are the seven diatomic molecules?
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Bromine, Fluorine, Chlorine, and Iodine
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