Chapter 10-12 Studyguide Q & A

Briefly explain redistricting and reapportionment.
Apportionment: Federal government to the states; 435 seats of the house of representatives are apportioned among the states (Each [email protected] least one) Conducted every 10 years
Redistricting: Follows apportionment; Process of redrafting district lines within states that have gained or lost seats through reapportionment (Done by the state legislatures); There are more representatives than districts; Happens during the census (every 10 years)
Discuss the incumbency advantage for members of Congress.
The ability to efficiently generate funding for reelection campaigns, ability to appeal to voter patience as well as name recognition; Already in office and already seated in that position, Advantages: Name recognition, access to mailing lists that person running against them that won’t , more access to funds (has to do with funding that theyre with), powers of congress-Article I Section 8
Discuss the powers of Congress and the differences between the House and Senate.
Describe the structure and leaders of the House and Senate? Describe their positions and what they do.
• Speaker is the one in the house of representatives
• The three in the senate (listed)
Define the four major types of congressional committees?
1. Standing committees
a. Most common
b. Deal with issues of permanent legislative concern & majority of legislation
c. May have subcommittee
2. Conference committees
a. Very common kind of jointing committee with members from both the house and the senate
b. Both houses must approve identical versions
c. Different versions?
I. Leaders create a conference committee to reconcile the differences between the two bills
II. Issue a single bill to vote on
3. Select committees
a. Select committees are created for a limited period and for a specific purpose
4. Joint committees (Special committees)
a. Consist of members of both houses, usually created to deal with a specific issue
Describe the process for passing legislation in Congress. What are the main steps in the process?
What is a filibuster, why is it used and how does it work?
Rule unique to the US senate that allows any senators to hold the floor indefinitely and therby delay a vote on bill to which they object. Ended only when sixty senators vote for cloture. Exists in the senate.. To uphold the floor from voting because want it delayed. All they’re doing is talking
What do we mean by the “City on the Hill”?
What is divided government? What is unified government?
Divided government describes a situation which one party controls the white house and another party controls one or both houses of the United states congress and another party controls one or both houses of the united states congress.
Divided: one party controls one party of the house and the other. We are divided pretty much the entire time Obama has been the president.
Be sure you know the 10 Sections of Article I of the Constitution.
What are the formal requirements for a person to serve as president of the United States?
Describe the process of how the vice president is chosen, and what are the duties of the office? Has this over grown in power?
-How the process has changed from 1789 to now
-Before he was the runnerup
-separate ticket
-now, run as a team
-Grown in power: how much power the vice president has depends on the president
3. What are the central roles of the president? Briefly describe each. Pg. 402-what presidents do **Define and describe three roles of the president
1. Chief of state
a. Example for the American people
b. Living symbol of the nation
2. Chief executive
a. Boss for government workers
b. Decides how laws are to be enforced
3. Chief diplomat
a. What American diplomats and ambassadors shall say to foreign government
b. Makes the foreign policy
4. Commander in chief
a. In charge of the US armed forces (Army, Navy, Air force, and marines)
5. Chief legislator
a. Power to influence congress in its lawmaking
6. Chief of party
a. Members of his political party get elected or appointed to office
7. Chief guardian of the economy
a. Concerned with unemployment, high prices, business profits, and prosperity of the nation
b. Helps to run the economy smoothly
8. Has a council of economics and Is part of the council
Has the system of checks and balances eroded with an increasingly powerful president?
• Central government have more power
• Implied powers
o Executive orders
• Have the force of law
• Can be trashed by judicial law
• More it erodes the balance that we’re supposed to have
How has public approval rating impacted the presidency?
• Honeymoon period: do what pretty much he wants
• Ratings decline, loses all of that much
What are the EOP, the OMB, the CEA, and the NSC underneath the executive branch? Describe their importance.
• Office of Management and Budget (OMB) **Most important office
o Congress could assist president in all of his responsibilities
o FDR-most changes since 1789
o Most powerful agency in the executive agency
o Manages entire executive branch
o Central clearance
• Power to review and clear anything a member of the administration says or does in public
• Council of Economic Advisors (CEA)
o Council and its chair keep an eye on the whole economy
o Economic analysis for the president
• National Security Council (NSC)
o Brings together the powerful officers who make national security policy
o National security advisor directs the council and must work for consensus across all the different perspectives and formidable personalities
Once a bill has passed both houses of Congress it goes to the president for his signature. What are the president’s four options when presented with a bill? **10 days and whether or not congress adjourns
• Pocket veto
• Law without signature
• Sign the bill
• Veto-goes back to congress
• Veto taken to override, and the vote fails, the bill dies.
Is presidential character an important issue?
Notes on Elearning
Describe the four components of the federal bureaucracy. (traditional departments/cabinets – EOP – Public Enterprise/Government Corporations – Regulatory Agencies and Commissions)
• Need to know when I’m asking is it’s a regulatory agency
o CIA and FBI is NOT one
o EPA or FCC are ones
Why does executive power increase during crisis situations?
• State powers go away for a short term and its on the president
Discuss the evolution of the cabinet departments over time. Why were they created? What are the major functions of the cabinet secretaries? (You should be able to name at least five cabinet departments)
• First three Washington implemented & not discussed in the constitution
• To work alongside the president; to deal with the president; Secretary of state Function: to help the president to address their policies Cabinet of secretary: Policies of president have been carried out
Compare and contrast merit-based and spoils-based bureaucratic systems.
• Spoils system vs. Civil service system
Discuss key problems and issues associated with the value of “representation” in governmental decision making, including the need for efficient, rational, and neutral policy making by agency officials.
• Reflection of
• Video in the congress of Demographics of us
o Do not reflect
• Because of old white males that have been congress
What effect did the Pendleton Act have on the American bureaucracy?
Covered the spoils system
Identify and define the characteristics of a bureaucracy. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to making and administering policy through bureaucratic agencies. *Open ended question
• Can be found on page 443; Are you opening your book?
• Can abolish the entire program and do away with it
When does Congress rein in the bureaucracy? How has the funding for the war in Iraq been
• Funding was improperly used;
• Congress is supposed to oversight; How much oversight they have controls the funding; Easier if out of country-

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