Chapter 1 Vocabulary

Anatomy
____________ is the study of structure’ “to cut apart”

Physiology
_____________ is the scientific discipline that studies the function of body structures

Microscopic
______________ anatomy examines structures that cannot be observed by the unaided eye.

Cytology
___________ is a cellular anatomy; the study of single body cells and their internal structure

Histology
____________ is the study of tissues

Gross
____________ anatomy, otherwise referred to as “macroscopic anatomy”, investigates the structure and relationships of large body parts that are visible to the unaided eye.

Comparative
_____________ anatomy examines the similarities and differences in the anatomy of species.

Developmental
______________ anatomy investigates the changes in structure within an individual from conception through maturity

Embryology
_____________ is concerned specifically with developmental changes occurring prior to birth

Regional
_____________ anatomy examines al the structures in a particular region of the body as one complete unit

Surface
_____________ anatomy examines both superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them

Systemic
_____________ anatomy studies the gross anatomy of each system in the body

Endocrine
The ___________ System consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones. Some of which regulate body and cellular growth, chemical levels in the body, and reproductive functions.

Endocrine
Hypothalamus
Pineal Gland
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Ovaries
Thymus
Adrenal Glands
Pancreas
Kidney
^ These are organs of the ____________________ System

Nervous
A regulatory system that controls body movement, responds to sensory stimuli, and helps control all other systems of the body. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory. This is called the _________________ System

Nervous
Sense Organ – eye
*CNS:
Brain
Spinal Cord
*PNS
Peripheral nerves
^These are organs of the _________________ System

Cardiovascular System
Consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels. The heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, and gases, and pick up waste products
This system is the:

Cardiovascular
Capillaries
Heart
Vein
Artery
^These are organs of the ___________________ system.

Lymphatic System
Transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and initiates an immune response when necessary

Organs of the Lymphatic System
Tonsils
Cervical Lymph nodes
Thymus
Axillary lymph nodes
Thoratic duct
Spleen
Inguinal lymph nodes
Popliteal lymph node
Lymph vessel

Respiratory
The _____________ System is responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood and the air in the lungs.

Respiratory
Nasal Cavity
Nose
Pharynx (throat)
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs
^These are organs of the ____________________ System

Digestive
The _____________ System mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products

Digestive
Oral cavity (mouth)
Salivary glands
Pharynx (throat)
Esophagus
Liver
Stomach
Large Intestine
Small Intestine
^These are organs of the _______________ System

Urinary
The _______________ System filters the blood and removes waste products from the blood, concentrates waste products in the form of urine, and expels urine from the body

Urinary
Kidney
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
^These are organs of the ________________ System

Male Reproductive
The ______________ System produces male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (testosterone), transfers sperm to the female

Female Reproductive
The _____________ System produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus

coronal
The _________ plane, also termed “frontal plane” is a
vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

transverse
The ____________ plane, also termed “cross-sectional”
“horizontal”
cuts perpendicularly along the long axis of the body or organ
separated into
superior (upper)
inferior (lower)

midsagittal
The _________ plane, also termed “median plane”,
extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves

sagittal
The _________ plane divides a structure into right and left portions that may or may not be equal

oblique
The _________ plane passes through the specimen at an angle

Anterior
The term, __________, indicates in front of; toward the front surface.
“the stomach is ” ” to the spinal cord”

Posterior
The term, __________, indicates in back of; toward the back surface.
“the heart is ” ” to the sternum”

Dorsal
The term, __________, indicates at the back side of the human body
“the spinal cord is on the ” ” side of the body

Ventral
The term, __________, indicates at the belly side of the human body
“The umbilicus (navel, belly button) is on the ” ” side of the body”

Superior
The term, __________, indicates closer to the head
“the chest is ” ” to the pelvis”

Inferior
The term, __________, indicates closer to the feet
“the stomach is ” ” to the heart”

Caudal
The term, __________, indicates at the rear or tail end
“the abdomen is ” ” to the head”

Cranial
The term, __________, indicates at the head end
“the head is ” ” to the trunk”

Rostral
The term, __________, indicates toward the nose
“the frontal lobe is ” ” to the occipital lobe”

Medial
The term, __________, indicates toward the midline of the body.
“the lungs are ” ” to the shoulders”

Lateral
The term, __________, indicates away from the midline of the body.
“the arms are ” ” to the heart”

Deep
The term, __________, indicates on the inside, underneath another structure.
“muscles are ” ” to the skin”

Superficial
The term, __________, indicates on the outside
“the external edge of the kidney is ” ” to its internal structure”

Proximal
The term, __________, indicates closest to point of attachment to trunk.
“the elbow is ” ” to the hand”

Distal
The term, __________, indicates furthest from point of attachment to trunk.
“the wrist is ” ” to the elbow”

Axial
The ______________ region includes the head, neck and trunk. It forms the main vertical axis of the body

Appendicular
The _____________ region includes our limbs, or appendages. It attaches to the body’s axis.