Chapter 1 Test: The cultural Landscape

Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the origins of geography?
A) Geography was invented as a science in the late 18th century.
B) Physical geography has been studied since ancient times, but human geography was first studied in the 20th century.
C) Geography owes its existence to the Renaissance period in Western Europe.
D) Humans have practiced geography at least since the time of ancient Greek civilization.
E) Human geography was not practiced until powerful computers capable of mapping detailed information were invented.
Humans have practiced geography at least since the time of ancient Greek civilization.
According to the surviving evidence, the first person to write the word geography was
A) Aristotle.
B)Eratosthenes
C) Strabo.
D) Thales of Miletus.
E) Thucydides.
Eratosthenes.
What elements of study do human and physical geography have in common?
A) They are taught or studied within the same department in major universities, but only rarely.
B) They are concerned with where things occur and why they occur where they do.
C) They are dedicated primarily to managing national park systems.
D) They are focused primarily on managing the world’s growing human population.
E) They represent a network of academic professionals dedicated primarily to studying coal mining’s effects on physical and human systems.
They are concerned with where things occur and why they occur where they do.
Scale is
A) the system used by geographers to transfer locations from a globe to a map.
B) the spread of a phenomenon over a given area.
C) the difference in elevation between two points in an area.
D) the relationship between the length of an object on a map and that feature on the landscape.
E) the ratio of the largest to smallest areas on a map.
the ratio of the largest to smallest areas on a map.
1:24,000 is an example of what kind of scale?
A) a bar line
B) a metric scale
C) a graphic scale
D) a written scale
E) a ratio or fraction
a ratio or fraction
A mathematical process for transferring locations from a globe to a flat map is a(n)
A) distribution.
B) interruption.
C) rendition
D) scale.
E) projection.
projection.
The art and science of making maps is
A) cardemography.
B) cartography.
C) topography.
D) geomorphology.
E) geography.
cartography.
You are given the coordinates 128 E longitude, 45 N latitude. This is an example of a
A) mathematical location.
B) placename on the grid system.
C) situation on the grid system.
D) mathematical grid interchange.
E) site-situation intersection.
mathematical location.
Which statement is more accurate?
A) Every meridian is actually a circle rather than a curved line.
B) Every meridian is the same length and has the same beginning and end.
C) Every parallel begins and ends at the poles.
D) Every parallel is the same length.
E) Every meridian is distorted by magnetic declination.
Every meridian is the same length and has the same beginning and end.
Greenwich Mean Time is measured from
A) 0 degrees latitude.
B) 0 degrees longitude.
C) 90 degrees latitude.
D) 180 degrees longitude.
E) 90 degrees longitude.
0 degrees longitude.
The International Date Line is measured approximately from
A) 0 degrees latitude.
B) 0 degrees longitude.
C) 90 degrees latitude.
D) 180 degrees longitude.
E) 90 degrees longitude.
180 degrees longitude.
We can judge from the various kinds of maps shown in this chapter that
A) fairly accurate navigational maps could only be produced after the start of the Industrial Revolution.
B) the first “true” maps appeared because of modern printing presses in the 20th century.
C) sailors during the European Renaissance had paper maps that were far more useful to them than were the “stick charts” possessed by Polynesian sailors and fishers.
D) maps have appeared in many forms in different societies and times, including modern paper maps, GPS in cars, the “stick charts” of Polynesia, and the carved maps of ancient Turkey.
E) maps that distort the sizes of Greenland and Antarctica are generally the best, although they make Africa and South America appear to small while simultaneously expanding the size of Europe.
maps have appeared in many forms in different societies and times, including modern paper maps, GPS in cars, the “stick charts” of Polynesia, and the carved maps of ancient Turkey.
A map projection may distort a continent, making it appear stretched in some areas and smashed in others in order to
A) distort the shapes of other continents.
B) distort the distances and relative sizes of countries and continents.
C) depict a map that accurately represents a globe in every detail.
D) depict accurately the physical area of a country or continent.
E) depict accurately the shape of that same continent.
depict accurately the physical area of a country or continent.
If the scale of a map is 1:100,000, then 1 centimeter on the map represents ________ on Earth’s surface.
A) 1 kilometer
B) 10 kilometers
C) 10,000 kilometers
D) 100,000 kilometers
E) 1,000 centimeters
1 kilometer
Which of the following types of maps would have the largest scale?
A) world
B) continent
C) state
D) city
E) country
city
Distortion is especially severe and apparent on
A) globes.
B) small-scale maps.
C) large-scale maps.
D) topographic maps.
E) all maps.
small-scale maps.
You see the coordinates 5 E longitude, 10 N latitude. You do not need to look at a map in order to deduce that this location is
A) near both the equator and the prime meridian.
B) near the equator but quite far from the prime meridian.
C) near the International Date Line as well as the North Pole.
D) near the International Date Line and the prime meridian.
E) near both the equator and the International Date Line.
near both the equator and the prime meridian.
The coordinates 150 E longitude, 89 N latitude are
A) near both the International Date Line and the North Pole.
B) near the equator but quite far from the prime meridian.
C) near the International Date Line and the equator.
D) near the North Pole and the prime meridian.
E) near both the Tropic of Cancer and the International Date Line.
near both the International Date Line and the North Pole.
Without looking at a map, we might deduce that the coordinates 170 W longitude, 11 S latitude are likely
A) just west of the International Date Line and just north of the equator.
B) just south of the equator and just east of the prime meridian.
C) just east of the International Date Line and just south of the equator.
D) just east of the prime meridian and just south of the equator.
E) just south of the International Date Line and just east of the equator.
just east of the International Date Line and just south of the equator.
If we did not have a map handy, we would deduce that the coordinates 171 E longitude, 12 S latitude are likely
A) just east of the International Date Line and just north of the equator.
B) just south of the equator and just east of the prime meridian.
C) just west of the International Date Line and just south of the equator.
D) just west of the prime meridian and just south of the equator.
E) just south of the International Date Line and just east of the equator.
just west of the International Date Line and just south of the equator.
Without glancing at a map, we can guess that the coordinates 178 E longitude, 20 S latitude are likely
A) just east of the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean.
B) in the Pacific Ocean just north of the equator.
C) in the Pacific Ocean just west of the International Date Line.
D) just west of the prime meridian in the Atlantic Ocean.
E) just south of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean.
C) in the Pacific Ocean just west of the International Date Line.
A ship’s position is given as 0 degrees latitude and 27 degrees west longitude. We can conclude from this information that the ship is located
A) on the equator and in the Atlantic Ocean.
B) at the North or South Pole and in the Arctic Ocean.
C) on the Prime Meridian and in the Atlantic Ocean.
D) astride the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean.
E) equidistant between the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line.
on the equator and in the Atlantic Ocean.
Driving around to gather information for street navigation devices is called
A) ground truthing.
B) remote sensing.
C) GIS programming.
D) GPS grounding.
E) GPS.
ground truthing.
The acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite, spacecraft, or specially equipped high-altitude balloon is
A) GIS.
B) GPS.
C) remote sensing.
D) aerial photography.
E) USGS.
C) remote sensing.
A computer system that stores, organizes, retrieves, analyzes, and displays geographic data is
A) GIS.
B) GPS.
C) remote sensing.
D) USGS.
E) topographic analysis.
A) GIS.
Global Positioning Systems reference ________ location.
A) relative
B) situational
C) mathematical
D) toponymic
E) exact
C) mathematical
If NASA sends a space probe into orbit around Mars, and that probe transmits images of the Martian surface back to Earth, we could say that
A) the space probe is gathering surface data, but it cannot be described as engaging in remote sensing because this is an operation that, by definition, can only be accomplished from Earth orbit.
B) the space probe is generating data for GPS.
C) the space probe is engaging in remote sensing, although it is gathering data from a planet other than Earth.
D) the probe is engaging in aerial photography, although it is taking its “pictures” from outer space.
E) the USGS has programmed the space probe to mimic the work of Earth satellites.
C) the space probe is engaging in remote sensing, although it is gathering data from a planet other than Earth.
If a geographer uses some of the components and applications of a computer system to organize and display maps, but she doesn’t use it for other functions,
A) she is still using a GIS, although she may not be using all of its potential to store, organize, retrieve, and analyze data.
B) she is still utilizing a GPS, although she may not be using all of its potential to store, organize, retrieve, and analyze data.
C) she is using only the components of a remote sensing system, because she is not storing, organizing, retrieving, or analyzing data.
D) she is not using a GIS, because she is not using all of the system’s potential to store, organize, retrieve, and analyze data.
E) she is using only the topographic analysis functions, because she is not using all of its potential to store, organize, retrieve, and analyze data
A) she is still using a GIS, although she may not be using all of its potential to store, organize, retrieve, and analyze data.
A geographer might use a GPS to
A) log the locations where photographs were taken, but not to find the best route to a store.
B) make a map but not to drive a car.
C) find the best route to a store or log the locations where photographs were taken.
D) record toponyms and terracentric calculations.
E) make a map or find a route to a favorite store, but not to log the locations where photographs were taken over the course of a research project.
C) find the best route to a store or log the locations where photographs were taken.
The name of a location on Earth’s surface is a
A) scale name.
B) site.
C) situation.
D) toponym.
E) geonym.
D) toponym.
Situation identifies a place by its
A) location relative to other objects or places.
B) mathematical location on Earth’s surface.
C) nominal location.
D) unique, internal physical and cultural characteristics.
E) primary dimensions.
A) location relative to other objects or places.
Site identifies a place by its
A) location relative to other objects and places.
B) mathematical location on Earth’s surface.
C) nominal location.
D) unique physical characteristics.
E) primary dimensions.
D) unique physical characteristics.
New York City’s ________ is approximately 100 miles northeast of Philadelphia and 100 miles southwest of Boston.
A) location
B) site
C) situation
D) toponym
E) jurisdiction
C) situation
A geographer would be primarily interested in determining or locating a suitable ________ if he were wishing to study a remote, rural valley in western Africa where diamonds are mined.
A) geocache
B) situation
C) site
D) toponym
E) jurisdiction
C) site
Which of the following are fundamental elements of culture?
A) customary beliefs, volcanic mountain ranges, and river settlements
B) material beliefs, customary forms, physical norms, and material social traits
C) social forms, material traits, customary beliefs, and physical environments
D) customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms
E) physical environments and material traits
D) customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms
The concept that the distribution of one phenomenon is related to the location of other phenomena is
A) geographic analysis.
B) spatial analysis.
C) spatial association.
D) spatial distribution.
E) regional association.
C) spatial association.
An area distinguished by one or more unique characteristics is a(n)
A) biome.
B) landscape.
C) region.
D) uniform unit.
E) ecosystem.
C) region.
The nine regions that the Census Bureau has established within the United States are examples of
A) governmental regions.
B) functional regions.
C) nodal regions.
D) formal regions.
E) vernacular regions.
D) formal regions.
The state of Texas is best considered a formal region because
A) only one language is spoken in most of the cities of the region.
B) the same state laws apply everywhere in the region.
C) the climate is the same everywhere in the region.
D) transportation systems converge in the major highways of the region.
E) it is a part of the United States.
B) the same state laws apply everywhere in the region.
Culture means to
A) care about and nurture something.
B) nurture the growth of a plant but not ideas, customs, or beliefs.
C) develop new variations.
D) discard effective practices.
E) teach art, music, and literature.
A) care about and nurture something.
The South is established as a vernacular region of the United States by
A) climate, low educational attainment, cotton production, and the prevalence of talk radio stations.
B) climate, low high-school graduation rates, and the Roman Catholic and Baptist churches.
C) low high school graduation rates, climate, cotton and corn (maize) production, and abuses of the rights of voters and minorities.
D) high cotton production, high church attendance, the prevalence of right-wing talk radio stations, and limits placed on the civil rights of ethnic and racial minorities.
E) climate, low educational attainment, cotton production, and the prevalence of Baptist churches.
E) climate, low educational attainment, cotton production, and the prevalence of Baptist churches.
Which of the following is most likely a functional region?
A) an area where new ideas seem to be circulating the fastest
B) the area of dominance of a particular church or sect
C) the area that a person regards as a hometown
D) the area of dominance of a television station
E) area where people tend to be fans of a particular professional football team
D) the area of dominance of a television station
Which of the following could be a vernacular region?
A) a sports “conference” or area within which sports teams compete with one another
B) the area of dominance of a television station
C) the market area of a supermarket
D) the area of dominance of a certain worldview or philosophy
E) the area served by a pizza delivery person
D) the area of dominance of a certain worldview or philosophy
Moving toward the southwestern border of the United States, Spanish is increasingly spoken in addition to English. What type of region does this gradual change of language reflect?
A) formal
B) functional
C) vernacular
D) geo-linguistic
E) bilingual
B) functional
Which of the following best describes the idea of a cultural landscape?
A) A landscape that has been completely modified, like a city center.
B) A landscape set aside for historical preservation, like a Civil War battlefield.
C) Land that has been developed with museums, concert halls, and schools.
D) A landscape where human activity has modified the natural environment in some way.
E) A landscape untouched by human activity, featuring mountains, rivers, and plants.
D) A landscape where human activity has modified the natural environment in some way.
Examining maps of cancer death rates drawn at different scales reveals that
A) most cancer deaths are still caused by smoking.
B) a region with an overall low cancer death rate may have some areas with high cancer death rates.
C) corporations will strongly oppose civil suits that attempt to hold them liable for cancer.
D) the use of different scales only confuses such a study, and it is best to use only one map at a small scale.
E) if a state has a high cancer death rate, every county in that state has a high cancer death rate.
B) a region with an overall low cancer death rate may have some areas with high cancer death rates.
When geographers say that the South is partly defined as a region by the Baptist Church, they understand that
A) low educational attainment and economic factors are not as important as religion in determining the boundaries and characteristics of this region.
B) the Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Methodist, and other churches also attract adherents in the South, but to a lesser extent than do Baptist churches.
C) the Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Methodist, and other churches attract almost no adherents because the Baptist Church has obtained such a high amount of power and state support there.
D) the Presbyterian, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Methodist, and other churches are supported by the state governments of the South.
E) Christian legislators in state governments do not let religious convictions and related biases interfere with their work.
B) the Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Methodist, and other churches also attract adherents in the South, but to a lesser extent than do Baptist churches.
To geographers, the spread of McDonald’s around the world represents
A) economic proliferation.
B) a unique taste in nearly every location.
C) the relocation diffusion of restaurants.
D) economic globalization but not cultural globalization.
E) economic and cultural globalization.
E) economic and cultural globalization.
In recent years, the global movement of money has been enhanced primarily by
A) establishment of new stock exchanges in London, New York, and Tokyo.
B) improvements in electronic communications.
C) relocation of production from core to peripheral regions.
D) uneven development of national banking sectors.
E) safeguards to ensure that economic recessions do not result from bank policies.
B) improvements in electronic communications.
Globalization of the economy has
A) leveled economic differences between places.
B) heightened economic differences among places.
C) decreased investment in less developed countries.
D) drained resources from more developed countries.
E) decreased regional specialization of production.
B) heightened economic differences among places.
Among the elements of globalization of culture are tendencies toward
A) uniform consumption preferences, enhanced communications, unequal access to resources, and uniformity in cultural forms.
B) enhanced communications, heterogeneity, and equal access to resources.
C) uniform consumption preferences, slower communications, unequal access to resources, greater access to entertainment, and a mixture of uniformity and variety in cultural forms.
D) maintaining local traditions.
E) maintaining local traditions along with uniformity of cultural beliefs and forms.
A) uniform consumption preferences, enhanced communications, unequal access to resources, and uniformity in cultural forms.
Common practices of ________ include exploiting the distinctive economic assets of different countries and regions, organizing production according to a spatial division of labor, placing earnings in offshore bank accounts to avoid paying taxes, and moving factories from high wage regions to low wage regions.
A) transnational corporations
B) nonessential employees
C) democratic governments
D) nationalized corporations
E) locally owned corporations
A) transnational corporations
The township and range system
A) established a gridlike pattern for much of present-day land use in the United States.
B) is in use nearly everywhere in the world.
C) was used for navigation by early pioneers, traders, and explorers in North America.
D) established a gridlike pattern for much of present-day Europe and the United States.
E) was used throughout Europe until the mid-1800s, after which the United States adopted it.
A) established a gridlike pattern for much of present-day land use in the United States.
The U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the country into a system of
A) townships, towns, cities, municipalities, and major urban centers.
B) ranges, distances, scales, projections, and map symbols.
C) town-county boundaries.
D) quarter sections, range sections, town land sections, and county sections.
E) townships, ranges, sections, and quarter sections.
E) townships, ranges, sections, and quarter sections.
The arrangement of a phenomenon across Earth’s surface is
A) dispersal.
B) spatial analysis.
C) spatial association.
D) distribution.
E) regional dissociation.
D) distribution.
The frequency of something within a given unit of area is
A) concentration.
B) density.
C) distribution.
D) pattern.
E) dispersion.
B) density.
A ________ is the spread of something over a given study area.
A) concentration
B) density
C) distribution
D) pattern
E) diffusion
A) concentration
In this figure, which two boxes have the highest concentration of dots?
A) A, C
B) B, D
C) A, B
D) C, D
E) All of these boxes have the same concentration of dots.
B) B, D

The ones that are closer together. All bunged up.

In this figure, which two of the four boxes have the highest density of dots?
A) A, B
B) B, C
C) C, D
D) A, D
E) all of these boxes have equivalent density
The most dots inside of the square.
A hearth is
A) a region from which a phenomenon originates.
B) the process by which a feature or trend spreads.
C) an area defined by one or more distinctive features or trends.
D) the modification of a culture as a result of contact with a more powerful one.
E) the perimeter or boundary marked by a regional feature.
A) a region from which a phenomenon originates.
Which of the following are forms of expansion diffusion?
A) contagious and eponymous
B) hierarchical and formal
C) economic and relocation
D) contagious and hierarchical
E) relocation and stimulus
D) contagious and hierarchical
The historic diffusion of HIV/AIDS in the United States is an example of which type of diffusion?
A) contagious
B) hierarchical
C) relocation
D) stimulus
E) geospatial
C) relocation
The diffusion of HIV/AIDS prevention methods and treatments in the United States is an example of which type of diffusion?
A) contagious
B) hierarchical
C) relocation
D) stimulus
E) geospatial
A) contagious
The concept that the physical environment sets broad limits on human actions, but that people have the ability to adjust to a wide variety of physical environments is
A) climate.
B) environmental determinism.
C) possibilism.
D) spatial association.
E) cultural relativism.
C) possibilism.
The study of how humans and the environment interact is called
A) environmental determinism.
B) cultural ecology.
C) cultural diffusion.
D) cultural possibilism.
E) natural science.
B) cultural ecology.
Hurricane Katrina’s landfall on the United States is an interesting geographic case study because
A) its effects are an intersection of human and physical geography.
B) its winds reached incredible speeds near the eye of the hurricane.
C) the damage was largely a result of flooding from rivers and a storm surge, not the winds.
D) the federal government was poorly prepared for the storm and its aftermath.
E) people of all ethnic and racial groups were equally devastated by the storm.
A) its effects are an intersection of human and physical geography.
According to environmental determinism,
A) the physical environment causes different types of social and cultural development.
B) the physical environment sets loose limits on cultural and social actions.
C) people cannot adjust to different physical environments because of cultural traditions.
D) people can choose a course of action from many alternatives offered by the physical environment, and they can also engage in cultural behaviors that seem contradictory to the environment.
E) people determine their physical environment.
A) the physical environment causes different types of social and cultural development.
Parallels converge at the North and South Poles.
Answer: FALSE
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians is called latitude.
Answer: FALSE
For each 15° change in longitude, time changes by one hour.
Answer: TRUE
Every map projection distorts the surface of Earth in some way.
Answer: TRUE
A map displays in full detail what lies on Earth’s surface.
Answer: FALSE
If you flew south along the International Date Line you would reach the South Pole, and if you continued flying straight ahead (with unlimited fuel) you would eventually cross the equator along the prime meridian.
Answer: TRUE
Formal regions cannot overlap.
Answer: FALSE
Regions are found only where physical and economic characteristics are strongly related.
Answer: FALSE
A functional region can exhibit the distance-decay phenomenon.
Answer: TRUE
The communication revolution that promotes globalization of culture also permits preservation of cultural diversity.
Answer: TRUE
Globalization of the economy has led to more specialization at the local level.
Answer: TRUE
Distribution refers to the arrangement of observable phenomena across a surface.
Answer: TRUE
A high degree of dispersion within an area indicates high density.
Answer: FALSE
The frequency of a phenomenon in a given study area is known as density.
Answer: TRUE
The spread of an idea through the movement of people is known as stimulus diffusion.
Answer: FALSE
Geography is concerned with the study of physical processes, although some geographic studies do not focus primarily on physical processes.
Answer: TRUE
A new piece of land created by draining the area is called a polder.
Answer: TRUE
Geographers generally reject environmental determinism for possibilism.
Answer: TRUE
The idea that the physical environment limits human actions but that people have the ability to adjust to or act counter to that environment is called possibilism.
Answer: TRUE
Written scale and ratio or fraction scale are two ways to express map scale. What is the third way to indicate scale?
Answer: graphic scale
Geographers draw two types of lines (arcs) on maps to indicate location. The lines (or arcs) drawn between the North and South Poles are known as ________. The Equator and other circles north and south of it are known as ________.
Answer: meridians (or lines of longitude); parallels (or lines of latitude)
List the four ways to indicate location.
Answer: toponym (or name); site; situation; mathematical
Oxford, Ohio, is located five miles east of the Indiana state line and thirty-five miles northwest of Cincinnati. This is an example of which of the four ways of indicating location?
Answer: situation
What are the three kinds of regions that geographers identify?
Answer: formal (or uniform or homogeneous); functional; vernacular
The signal area of radio station WOXY is an example of which kind of region?
Answer: functional
The area where people have heard of the rising reputation of radio station WOXY is an example of which kind of region?
Answer: vernacular
What force or trend is in opposition to the force of globalization?
Answer: local diversity
The frequency of a phenomenon over a given study area is defined as ________.
Answer: density
If someone said that people living in the desert are lazy because of the intense heat, this would be an example of what geographic approach?
Answer: environmental determinism
If someone said that human activities may be limited by intense heat, but that humans have adapted to living in the desert through the use of air conditioning, this would be an example of what geographic approach?
Answer: possibilism
It has been said that “all maps lie” and that most maps include political biases. What types of biases or distortions might you suspect or imagine while looking at the maps in this chapter? What other ways might map boundaries, place names, or symbols have been used to either reduce biases or show other types of biases?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
If a cartographer approached you claiming that she had produced the world’s most accurate and useful world map, with none of the shortcomings of previous maps, why would you need to doubt her claims? Give details or examples from this chapter to support your ideas.
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
If, on a piece of scrap paper, you drew a quick map of your hometown, state, or native country, what kinds of mental connections or “invisible” information would this map reveal about you? What does your sketch map reveal about your biases, your knowledge of the larger world, and your attention to some types of details rather than others (for example, place names versus landmarks). Do you tend to organize your thoughts and memories in terms of maps, illustrations, words, songs, or in some other manner?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
List each type of region described in the textbook and give an example of each.
Answer: Formal, functional and vernacular.
Answer: Formal, functional and vernacular. Examples will vary.
Name and discuss various (and perhaps overlapping) “regions” that your community or school is located within. Why does it pertain to each? What types of regions are these, according to the types discussed in this chapter?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
Think of a recent armed conflict or war discussed in the news. How do geographic concepts help you to better understand the issues surrounding that conflict, within its specific regional setting?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
Discuss the ethical or moral implications of dedicating geographical research to the diffusion of a large corporation such as McDonald’s. If you could design such a research project, explain whether and how you might focus more on consumer behaviors, environmental impacts (including the global market for meat), health issues involved in eating fast food (and the U.S. obesity epidemic), or other ethical issues. How important should these issues be to geographers, and why?
Answer: Varies
In more developed countries, a McDonald’s meal is considered to be inexpensive. But in many less developed countries, a meal at a McDonald’s restaurant may cost as much as a high-quality steak dinner at a traditional restaurant; moreover, on a weekend night, middle- and upper-class teenagers prefer to gather at McDonald’s when they can. Suggest some factors that might explain this. Hypothesize as to the mixture of logistical or cultural factors that might be involved in raising McDonald’s prices in a less developed country.
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
To whom might globalization represent a threat? Name a group in your community or elsewhere in the world and explain why. What alternatives or kinds of resistance to globalization might be shown by this group?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
Name one or two changes that have recently occurred in your town, community, or college that could have been improved by attention to spatial perspectives or geographic studies. Refer to recent news stories, construction, transportation projects, or social concerns that you can apply to the discussions in this chapter.
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
Several groups would be interested in the results of a geographical study of McDonald’s restaurants. In your judgment, what group or entity would benefit the most from such a study? A corporation, government, nonprofit health advocacy group, or certain individuals? Discuss how the economic and/or social ramifications of geographical research connect with this element of society.
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
What immediate and long-term affects could you envision if rainfall and drinking water suddenly became unavailable in your state or province? What roles might economic and cultural networks play in dealing with this drastic change? Assuming that major efforts were made to continue to sustain part of the population in your state, what traditional networks would either fail completely or have to be drastically revised, and what kind of population could continue to survive there?
Answer: Varies
there?
Answer: Varies
Discuss opposition to a major development project which has garnered attention in your area, or which you have learned about in the news media. Is most of the opposition primarily economic, ecological, or cultural in essence? Employing geographic concepts from this chapter, discuss the project and its opposition. Do you believe that the project should be completed? Why or why not?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
Natural disasters strike around the world and are certainly not limited to hurricanes. Discuss the environmental, economic, and cultural ramifications of a natural disaster (not a hurricane) that has recently been reported in the news media. How have geographic concepts helped people either prepare for such disasters or cope with the aftermath? How has a lack of geographic perspective harmed these efforts?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies
The environmental determinist approach to cultural ecology still appears in casual conversation, as well as in news media and in scholarly studies. In your observations of home, work, school, and government actions, what evidence have you seen of the persistence of environmental determinism? In contrast, where or in what contexts have you seen evidence of possibilist approaches to cultural ecology?
Answer: Varies
Answer: Varies