Chapter 1 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy
Understanding the parts of the body

Physiology
understanding the functions of the body

Palpation
pushing on what hurts

Auscultation
listening to what might be wrong

Cadaver Dissection
The cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationship

Comparative anatomy
limitations on human experimentation, the study of different species to learn about bodily functions. Helps with the development of new drugs and procedures

Exploratory surgery
opening the body and taking a look inside

Medical Imaging
Viewing the inside of the body without surgery

Radiology
branch of medicine concerned with imaging

Gross anatomy
Study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye

Histology
Examination of cells with a microscope

Histopathology
Microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease

Comparative physiology
Studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms

Inductive method
someone makes numerous observations until one becomes confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them

Hypothetico-deductive method
An investigator asks a question and then formulates a hypothesis

Hypothesis
To suggest a method for answering questions

Psychosomatic effects
effect of the subject’s state of mind on his or her physiology

Human structure
Organism
Organ systems
Organs
Tissues
cells
Organelles
Molecules
Atoms

Reductionism
Theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components

Organism
A form of life considered as an entity;an animal, plant, fungus, protistan, or moneran

Organ
Group of tissues into a distinct structure, as a heart or kidney in animals or a leaf or stamen in plants, that performs a specialized task

Tissue
an aggregate of similar cells and cell products forming a definite kind of structural material with a specific function, in a multicellular organism

Cells
A usually microscopic structure containing nuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by a semipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cell wall; the basic structural unit of all organisms

Holism
There are “emergent properties” of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of the separate parts.

reference man
22 years old, 154 lbs, consumes 2,600 calories a day

reference woman
22 years old, 128 lbs, consumes 2,000 calories a day

Homeostasis
The body’s ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions.

Dynamic equilibrium
The body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it

Negative feedback
The body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it. Because the feedback mechanisms alter the original changes that triggered them

Vasodilation
Vessels dilate

Vasoconstriction
vessels in the skin constrict

Receptor
senses change in the body

Integrating (control) center
control center that processes the sensory information, “makes a decision,” and directs a response

Effector
Carries out the final corrective action to restore homeostasis

Positive feedback
A self-amplifying cycle. It leads to greater change in the same direction. It is always repeated, the change produces more change

Organelles
A specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.

Molecules
the smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound.

Organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a certain task

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out