Chapter 1 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy
Understanding the parts of the body
Physiology
understanding the functions of the body
Palpation
pushing on what hurts
Auscultation
listening to what might be wrong
Cadaver Dissection
The cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationship
Comparative anatomy
limitations on human experimentation, the study of different species to learn about bodily functions. Helps with the development of new drugs and procedures
Exploratory surgery
opening the body and taking a look inside
Medical Imaging
Viewing the inside of the body without surgery
Radiology
branch of medicine concerned with imaging
Gross anatomy
Study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye
Histology
Examination of cells with a microscope
Histopathology
Microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease
Comparative physiology
Studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms
Inductive method
someone makes numerous observations until one becomes confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them
Hypothetico-deductive method
An investigator asks a question and then formulates a hypothesis
Hypothesis
To suggest a method for answering questions
Psychosomatic effects
effect of the subject’s state of mind on his or her physiology
Human structure
Organism
Organ systems
Organs
Tissues
cells
Organelles
Molecules
Atoms
Reductionism
Theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components
Organism
A form of life considered as an entity;an animal, plant, fungus, protistan, or moneran
Organ
Group of tissues into a distinct structure, as a heart or kidney in animals or a leaf or stamen in plants, that performs a specialized task
Tissue
an aggregate of similar cells and cell products forming a definite kind of structural material with a specific function, in a multicellular organism
Cells
A usually microscopic structure containing nuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by a semipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cell wall; the basic structural unit of all organisms
Holism
There are “emergent properties” of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of the separate parts.
reference man
22 years old, 154 lbs, consumes 2,600 calories a day
reference woman
22 years old, 128 lbs, consumes 2,000 calories a day
Homeostasis
The body’s ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions.
Dynamic equilibrium
The body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it
Negative feedback
The body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it. Because the feedback mechanisms alter the original changes that triggered them
Vasodilation
Vessels dilate
Vasoconstriction
vessels in the skin constrict
Receptor
senses change in the body
Integrating (control) center
control center that processes the sensory information, “makes a decision,” and directs a response
Effector
Carries out the final corrective action to restore homeostasis
Positive feedback
A self-amplifying cycle. It leads to greater change in the same direction. It is always repeated, the change produces more change
Organelles
A specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.
Molecules
the smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound.
Organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a certain task