Chapter 1 E Interactions of Living Things

Ecology
the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment

Biotic
describes living factors in the environment

Abiotic
describes the nonliving part of the environment

Population
a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area

Community
all of the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other

Ecosystem
a community of organisms and their abiotic, or nonliving, environment

Biosphere
the part of Earth where life exists

Herbivore
an organism that eats only plants

Carnivore
an organism that eats animals

Omnivore
an organism that eats both plants and animals

Food chain
the pathway of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms

Food web
a diagram that show the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem

Energy pyramid
a triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy, which results as energy passes through the ecosystem’s food chain

Carrying capacity
the largest population that an environment can support at any given time

Prey
Organisms that are killed and eaten by other organisms

Predator
an organism that eats all or part of another organism

Symbiosis
a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other

Mutualism
a relationship between two species in which both species benefit

Commensalism
a relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected

Parasitism
a relationship between two species in which one species, the parasite, benefits from the other species, the host which is harmed

Coevolution
when a long-term change takes place in two species because of their close interactions with one another

Producer
organisms that use sunlight directly to make food

Consumer
organisms that eat other organisms

Decomposer
organisms that get energy by breaking down dead organisms

Limiting Factor
resource that is so scarce that it limits the size of a population

Competition
When two or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource, such as food, water, shelter, space, or sunlight

Camouflage
one way animals avoid being eaten is by being hard to see, blending in with the background

Defensive Chemicals
Some animals defend themselves with chemicals

Warning Coloration
Animals that have a chemical defense need a way to warn predators that they should look elsewhere for a meal

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