Chap 2

A fourteen-year-old Indian girl named Malinali provided invaluable assistance to Hernán Cortés by
1. kidnapping Montezuma.
2. helping the Spanish to avoid smallpox and other deadly New World diseases.
3. serving as an interpreter and a cultural broker.
4. saving Captain John Smith from execution
serving as an interpreter and a cultural broker.
After fifty years of contact with Europeans in the New World,
1. 90 percent of the Indians had died primarily from the harshness of colonial policies and diseases inadvertently transmitted by Europeans.
2. five out of ten Indians in New Spain had died primarily from war and coerced labor.
3. nine out of ten Indians in New Spain had died primarily from harsh working conditions and torture when they refused to convert to Catholicism
4. five out of ten Indians in New Spain had died from smallpox, measles, and other microorganisms Cortés purposefully used to destroy the natives
90 percent of the Indians had died primarily from the harshness of colonial policies and diseases inadvertently transmitted by Europeans
Contact and trade between the peoples of the Old and New Worlds
1. enabled clever European traders to take advantage of gullible Indians.
2. caused chaos and anxiety in European communities.
3. exposed Indians to devastating Old World diseases.
4. resulted in the diffusion of American technology in Europe
exposed Indians to devastating Old World diseases
In the 1500s, the British and French
1. saw no benefit to colonization as long they could successfully raid Spanish treasure ships.
2. tried to duplicate Spain’s New World discoveries and successes but were diverted by religious wars.
3. successfully colonized in North America only in territory where the Spanish were not already present.
4. sent explorers into the New World but were unable to sustain thriving colonies.
sent explorers into the New World but were unable to sustain thriving colonies.
When Francisco Vásquez de Coronado ventured into the Southwest and Great Plains of North America, he was searching for
1. the fabled cliff dwellings of the Anasazi.
2. the Gold City of Cahokia.
3. the Seven Cities of Cíbola.
4. the burial mounds of the Adena.
the Seven Cities of Cíbola.
. The largest treasure found in the New World before 1540 was held by the
1. Incas.
2. Zuni.
3. Tlaxcalans.
4. Mexicans.
Incas.
John Cabot was sponsored by the English monarch to search for a “Northwest Passage” to the Indies. Which area did he manage to reach and claim for England?
1. Ontario
2. Cuba
3. Newfoundland
4. Brazil
Newfoundland
In order to adapt to the demands of longer ocean voyages, the Portuguese
1. left Portugal less often.
2. developed a vessel known as the caravel.
3. used enslaved Africans to pilot their ships.
4. stole technology and maps from Italian merchants
developed a vessel known as the caravel.
In the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand that
1. the discoveries of Columbus, Balboa, and Vespucci proved there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia.
2. the earth was a sphere and not flat.
3. a round globe rather than a flat map depicted Earth with greater accuracy.
4. the Treaty of Tordesillas shifted power from Italy to Spain and Portugal
the discoveries of Columbus, Balboa, and Vespucci proved there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia.
The most important treasure the Spanish plundered from their New World holdings was
1. gold.
2. land.
3. tobacco.
4. Indian labor.
Indian labor
Portugal was an unlikely nation to lead Europe into the Age of Exploration because
1. it was a small, landlocked nation that, prior to the 1500s, had little interest in expanding its borders.
2. it was a small nation with less than 2 percent of the population of Christian Europe.
3. its monarchy was controlled by the Catholic Church, which resisted the idea of exploration.
4. it was primarily populated by impoverished, illiterate peasants whose monarchy was destabilized by economic warfare.
it was a small nation with less than 2 percent of the population of Christian Europe.
Children born from a Spanish man and an Indian woman in the Spanish New World would be considered part of which social class?
1. creoles
2. peninsulares
3. mestizos
4. Cajuns
mestizos
Factors that encouraged exploration and territorial expansion included
1. technological advances in navigational instruments and the abandonment of supernatural worship.
2. the stability of fifteenth-century European life and the opening of trade between all countries.
3. the shift in power among European countries and longer life expectancies.
4. technological advances in navigational instruments and monarchs who hoped to enlarge their realms, enrich their dynasties, and magnify their power and prestige.
technological advances in navigational instruments and monarchs who hoped to enlarge their realms, enrich their dynasties, and magnify their power and prestige
When Columbus first arrived in the New World, he believed he was in
1. the Caribbean.
2. St. Augustine.
3. Cuba.
4. the East Indies.
the East Indies.
The government of which country sponsored Christopher Columbus’s 1492 exploration?
1. France
2. Spain
3. Italy
4. Portugal
Spain
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall on the coast of
1. Mexico.
2. Brazil.
3. Peru.
4. Guatemala.
Brazil.
The gender and number of Spanish settlers in New Spain created a society in which
1. Spaniards married Spaniards and Indians married Indians and the two groups rarely mixed.
2. a fluid family and class structure based on Spanish norms emerged.
3. a fluid family and class structure based on Indian norms emerged.
4. Spanish men frequently married Indian women and a class structure emerged with only 1 to 2 percent of the population dominating.
Spanish men frequently married Indian women and a class structure emerged with only 1 to 2 percent of the population dominating.
Portugal’s early interest in exploration and expansion stemmed from its desire to
1. shift the balance of power in Europe from France to itself.
2. control the gold and slave trade of Africa.
3. shift the balance of power in Europe from England to itself.
4. expel Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula and gain access to African trade posts.
expel Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula and gain access to African trade posts.
Like many other European colonies in the New World, New Spain developed a pattern of social organization in which
1. Europeans became a dominant minority in a society stratified by race and social origin.
2. everyone participated in an egalitarian society regardless of differences related to race or social origin.
3. Indians and Africans became the dominant groups in a society stratified by race and social origin.
4. everyone shared the same cultural and racial characteristics
Europeans became a dominant minority in a society stratified by race and social origin.
Hernán Cortés’s dominance over Mexico was most significant because it
1. supplied Spain with gold and diverted Spain’s attention away from enemies in Europe.
2. destroyed the Mexican heritage and diverted Spain’s attention away from enemies in Europe.
3. served as a model for future colonization and made Spain the most powerful nation in Europe.
4. destroyed the Athapascan heritage and made Spain the most powerful nation in America
served as a model for future colonization and made Spain the most powerful nation in Europe.
The system of coerced labor in New Spain grew directly out of Spaniards’ assumption that
1. they needed to rule harshly in order to maintain control over the Indians.
2. Spaniards were superior to Indians.
3. coercion was the only way Indians would work.
4. Indians were so smart that, if not watched, they would sabotage mines
Spaniards were superior to Indians.
A new social class was made up of children who were born in the Spanish New World to parents who had emigrated from Spain, referred to as
1. mestizos.
2. Cajuns.
3. creoles.
4. peninsulares.
creoles.
The Tainos shared which of the following traits with the Europeans?
1. They farmed, fished, and held no religious beliefs.
2. They farmed, knew how to build boats, and held religious beliefs.
3. They left numerous written documents.
4. They fished, used navigational instruments, and worshiped the spirits of ancestors
They farmed, knew how to build boats, and held religious beliefs.
The deaths of millions of Indians affected Spain
1. greatly. The lack of natives created a labor shortage that led to the purchase of African slaves.
2. little. Spain had exhausted all natural resources in the areas it had colonized.
3. greatly. By this death toll, the Spaniards accidentally realized the value of germ warfare and used it in the future.
4. little. The Spanish believed Indians to be inferior and their deaths to be no great loss
greatly. The lack of natives created a labor shortage that led to the purchase of African slaves.
In 1517, Martin Luther publicized his criticism of the Catholic Church. The theological differences between Luther and the Catholic Church centered on
1. how salvation could be gained.
2. the divinity of Jesus.
3. who could become a priest.
4. the role of saints.
how salvation could be gained
The Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494
1. resolved their differences with the Catholic Church concerning territorial ownership and the division of wealth brought back from these territories.
2. protected Spain’s holdings in the New World, protected Portugal’s holdings in Africa, and removed the financially exhaustive competition to reach Asia.
3. drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean, and that which was west of the line belonged to Spain and that which was east belonged to Portugal.
4. finally removed the Muslims from the European continent
drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean, and that which was west of the line belonged to Spain and that which was east belonged to Portugal.
Between 1492 and 1592, the approximately 225,000 Spaniards who settled in the colonies were made up primarily of
1. poor young men of common lineage who were artisans, laborers, soldiers, and sailors.
2. artisans, laborers, and sailors of Jewish or Islamic faith who escaped the Spanish Inquisition.
3. the displaced younger sons of Spanish nobility who were left poor by primogeniture.
4. the young men of common folk who brought their families to gain land and wealth in the New World
poor young men of common lineage who were artisans, laborers, soldiers, and sailors.
When Catholic priests such as Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas complained to the Spanish government about the brutal treatment of Indians, royal officials
1. sent delegates to investigate and punish the guilty.
2. ignored the problems because money was still flowing into Spain and because they thought priests were “too soft.”
3. encouraged the Catholic Church to suppress complaints from the priests and friars.
4. saw the behavior in terms of a greater fear—that the Spanish bureaucracy was losing control over the encomenderos.
saw the behavior in terms of a greater fear—that the Spanish bureaucracy was losing control over the encomenderos.
Magellan’s circumnavigation of the globe left no doubt that America was separated from Asia by an enormous ocean. His voyage
1. made the Italian merchants rejoice because their control of the Asian trade would no longer be challenged.
2. resulted in the founding of the first Portuguese colony in the New World.
3. convinced Europeans that a westward passage to the East was not a feasible route.
4. validated the findings of Columbus and Cabral.
convinced Europeans that a westward passage to the East was not a feasible route.
During the 1500s, the New World was primarily dominated by
1. Portugal, because it was the first country to secure the St. Lawrence and Mississippi rivers and was thus able to control the interior of the continent.
2. Spain, because it had more colonial possessions than other European countries.
3. France, because of the Catholic Church’s missionary work there.
4. England, because Spain and Portugal had diverted their attention to trade with Asia
Spain, because it had more colonial possessions than other European countries.
The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as the
1. Columbian exchange.
2. Pan-Atlantic exchange.
3. Renaissance.
4. Atlantic Trade.
Columbian exchange.

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