Ch.15 Vocab

Boiling Point Elevation
Temp. Difference between a Solutions Boiling point and pure solvents boiling point
Brownian Motion
Jerky, random, rapid movements of colloid particles that results from collisions of particles of the dispersion medium with the dispersed particles
Colligative Property
Physical property of a solution that depends on the number, but not identity, of dissolved solute particles, EX: Vapor Pressure Lowering, Boiling Point Elevation, Osmotic Pressure, and Freezing Point Depression
Colloid
Hetergeneous mixtures containing particles larger than solution particles but smaller than suspension particles that are categorized according to the phases of their dispersed particles and dispersing mediums
Concentration
quantitative measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
Freezing Point Depression
difference in temperature between a solutions freezing point and the freezing point of its pure solvent
Heat of Solution
overall energy change that occurs during the solution formation process
Henry’s Law
states that at a given temperature the solutility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
Immiscible
describes 2 liquids that can be mixed together but seperate shortly after you cease mixing them
Insoluble
describes a substance that cannot be dissolved in a given solvent
Miscible
describes 2 liquids that are soluble in each other
Molarity
number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution, also known as molar concentration
Molality
Ratio of the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kilogram of solvent, also known as molal concentration
Mole Fraction
ration of the number of moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvent
Osmosis
diffusion of solvent particles across a semiperameable membrane from an area of higher solvent concentration to an area of lower solvent concentration
Solubility
contains maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
Osmotic Pressure
The additional pressure needed to reverse osmosis
Saturated Solution
Contains maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
Soluble
describes substance that can be dissolved in a given solvent
Solvation
process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution; occurs only where and when the solute and solvent particles come in contact with each other
Supersaturated Solution
Contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature
Suspension
a type of heterogeneous mixture whose particles settle out over time and can be separated from the mixture by filtration
Tyndall Effect
The scattering of light by colloidal particles
Unsaturated Solution
Contains less Dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution, has further capacity to hold more solute.
Vapor Pressure Lowering
The lowering of vapor pressure of a solvent by the addition of a nonvolatile solute to the solvent
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