In middle and late childhood, especially from 8 to 11 years of age, children increasingly describe themselves with psychological characteristics and traits rather than the more concrete self descriptions of younger children.
Know about self-understanding.
self esteem: the global evaluative dimension of the self. referred to self worth or self image
self- concept: Domain-specific evaluations of self.
self efficiacy: the belief that one can master situation and produce favorable outcomes. belief that “I can”.
self-regulation: one of the most important aspects of the self in middle and late childhood.
– deliberate efforts to manage ones behavior, emotions, and thoughts that lead to increased social competence and achievement
Know about self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-concept.
Females are more likely to help children with personal problems and to engage in care giving bevhavior. However, in situations where males feel a sense of competence, and those that involve danger, males are more likely to help than females.
For example: a male is more likely to help someone with a flat tire than a female.
What does research state about helping behavior?
Researchers have found that family management practices are positively related to students grades and self resposibility, and negatively to school-related problems.
Know the research regarding family management practices
Popular children: frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers.
neglected children: infrequently nominated as a best friend and are not disliked by their peers
rejected children: infrequently nominated as someones best friend and are actively disliked by peers.
Know about rejected, popular, controversial, and neglected children
bullying: verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful.
boys are more likely to be bullied than girls.
socially withdrawn & aggresive childen are more likely to be bullied.
-Most promising bully intervention programs has been created by Dan Olweus. Focuses on 6- 15 year olds with goal of decreasing opportunities and rewards for bullying. School staff is instructed in ways to improve peer relations and make schools safer. When propery implemented, the program reduces bullying by 30 to 70 percent.
Know about bullying and its intervention programs
it was endorsed by the national governors association in an effort to implement more rigorous state guidelines for education students. It specifies what students should know and the skills they should develop at each grade level in various content areas
What is Common Core Standards?