Ch. 6 Practice Quiz

Which of the following variables is likely to affect public opinion?
income, race, education, gender

The set of underlying orientations, ideas, and beliefs through which individuals come to understand and interpret politics is called
political ideology

On average, Americans know
less about politics as compared to citizens of most countries

The ability to influence government and politics
political efficacy

College graduates are
more likely to participate in politics

In many respects, schooling in the U.S.
helps determine a person’s success in life, is a great equalizer, and teaches children a common set of civic values

The interplay of opinions and views that takes place when competing forces attempt to persuade as many people as possible to accept a particular position on a particular event
marketplace of ideas

Scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
public-opinion polls

Above all, a public-opinion sample must
be representative (unbiased and reflecting the community as a whole)

The practice of push polling involves
asking loaded questions in order to subtly shape the respondent’s opinion

The processes through which underlying political beliefs and values are formed are collectively called
political socialization

How did the framers of the Constitution affect the power of public opinion on governmental policy?
by creating a system that did not automatically let popular opinion translate into public policies

What is most likely the cause of differences in opinion between African Americans and white Americans concerning the arrest of Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates?
African Americans and white Americans have different perspectives of and experiences with the criminal justice system

The impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not is known as
the illusion of saliency

What are among the most powerful forces operating in the marketplace of ideas?
communications media

What can contribute to a lack of consistency between public opinion and governmental policy?
a committed minority that can override the viewpoint of the majority

What is not a core U.S. value?
big government

A liberal would most likely
support political and social change, government intervention in the economy, and the expansion of federal social services, but mistrust government involvement in personal issues

A conservative would most likely
support the social and political status quo and be suspicious of government regulations of business, but favor government involvement in social issues and believe the government should promote prayer in public school

People’s underlying beliefs and ideologies
color their perceptions so that they often make automatic judgements

Which kind of polling error arises when a sample of public opinion overrepresents or underrepresents some opinions?
selection bias

Which group is the most influential agent of socialization in early childhood?
family

The ability of government to shape public opinion is
limited by other sources of information (such as the media)

The term used to denote beliefs that people have about political issues, events, institutions, and personalities is
public opinion

James Madison and other framers of the Constitution thought what would always be the most important source of conflict in political life?
the inherent gulf between the rich and the poor

Which agents of socialization provides most people with their initial orientation to politics?
family

What is not one of the four most important agents of socialization?
partisanship

Although political ideologies color our perspectives, they seldom fully determine our views. Why?
most people have at least some conflicting underlying attitudes; individuals may have difficulty linking particular issues of personalities to their own underlying beliefs; most individuals’ ideologies contain internal contradictions

Which type of equality is most prominent in the U.S.?
equality of opportunity

What is an example of a social group?
women; a labor union; a political party

People are more likely to change their opinions when they
don’t have strong feelings about the issue at hand

Many states currently use which mechanism to allow public opinion to directly control policy?
the initiative and referendum

What is the so-called gender gap?
political and voting differences between men and women

What is not important in determining the reliability of a poll?
size of the population

What is a major difference between college graduates and other Americans?
College graduates more often participate in politics, as compared to Americans with less education

Recent studies by political scientists show
that the average American exhibits little knowledge of political institutions, processes, or leaders

The idea of a “culture war” refers to what?
a perceived, deep divide in American culture, caused by differences in religious, moral, and political values

What is wrong with the following poll question: “Do you think it was appropriate for President Bush to lie so that he could start a war with Iraq?”
push polling (purposely asking controversial questions aimed at illiciting a certain desired opinion)

In general, the government’s actions are what with citizen’s preferences?
consistent